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Table 1 Description of predictors according to frailty status at baseline

From: Changes in frailty among community-dwelling Chinese older adults and its predictors: evidence from a two-year longitudinal study

PredictorsTotalRobust (≤ 0.10)Prefrail (≤ 0.21)Frail (>  0.21)P value
n = 3988, n (%)n = 3169, n (%)n = 656, n (%)n = 163, n (%)
Gender (Male) 1500 (47.3)187 (28.5)49 (30.1)< 0.001
Age, year (Mean ± SD)69.38 ± 7.0668.17 ± 6.3773.23 ± 7.1777.47 ± 8.38< 0.001 a
Age group, year    < 0.001
 60–692314 (58.0)2056 (65.1)216 (32.9)33 (20.2) 
 70–791237 (31.0)883 (27.9)297 (45.3)57 (35.0) 
 80+437 (11.0)221 (7.0)143 (21.8)73 (44.8) 
Marital status (Married)3181 (79.8)2645 (83.5)451 (68.8)85 (52.1)< 0.001
Educational level    < 0.001
 Illiteracy2251 (56.4)1592 (50.3)519 (79.1)140 (85.9) 
 Primary school1176 (29.5)1069 (33.7)93 (14.2)14 (8.6) 
 Junior high school or above561 (14.1)508 (16.0)44 (6.7)9 (5.5) 
Working (Yes)629 (15.8)567 (17.9)58 (8.8)4 (2.5)< 0.001
Live alone (Yes)325 (8.1)218 (6.9)80 (12.2)27 (16.6)< 0.001
Shower facility at home (No)381 (9.6)248 (7.8)108 (16.5)25 (15.3)< 0.001
Annual physical examination (No)357 (9.0)249 (7.9)62 (9.5)46 (28.2)< 0.001
Cigarette smoking    < 0.001
 Nonsmoker2662 (66.8)2018 (63.6)514 (78.4)130 (79.8) 
 Past smoker488 (12.2)392 (12.4)74 (11.3)22 (13.5) 
 Current smoker838 (21.0)759 (24.0)68 (10.4)11 (6.7) 
Alcohol intake (Yes)749 (18.8)686 (21.6)60 (9.1)3 (1.8)< 0.001
Daily tea (Yes)1370 (34.4)1198 (37.8)149 (22.7)23 (14.1)< 0.001
Reading (Yes)595 (14.9)542 (17.1)49 (7.5)4 (2.5)< 0.001
Playing cards or mahjong (Yes)917 (23.0)813 (25.7)97 (14.8)7 (4.3)< 0.001
Physical exercise    < 0.001
 Almost never992 (24.9)747 (23.6)166 (25.3)79 (48.5) 
 Several times per week805 (20.2)606 (19.1)166 (25.3)33 (20.2) 
 Everyday2191 (54.9)1816 (57.3)324 (49.4)51 (31.3) 
Meeting with children    0.073
 Almost never801 (20.0)636 (20.1)143 (21.8)22 (13.5) 
 Several times per week1757 (44.1)1411 (44.5)277 (42.2)69 (42.3) 
 Everyday1430 (35.9)1122 (35.4)236 (36.0)72 (44.2) 
Neighbor interaction    < 0.001
 Almost never517 (13.0)384 (12.1)96 (14.6)37 (22.7) 
 Several times per week505 (12.7)376 (11.9)103 (15.7)256 (16.0) 
 Everyday2966 (74.3)2409 (76.0)457 (69.7)100 (61.3) 
Social participation    < 0.001
 Almost never2915 (73.1)2308 (72.8)474 (72.3)133 (81.6) 
 Several times per month522 (13.1)392 (12.4)107 (16.3)23 (14.1) 
 Several times per week551 (13.8)469 (14.8)75 (11.4)7 (4.3) 
  1. aP value for ANOVA
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