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Table 2 Characteristics of study participants

From: Association of Frailty with recovery from disability among community-dwelling Chinese older adults: China health and retirement longitudinal study

 ADL
analysis
IADL
analysis
CharacteristicsN = 516N = 598
Age, years, No (%)
 60–64202 (39.1)229 (38.3)
 65–69118 (22.9)142 (23.7)
 70–7496 (18.6)117 (19.6)
 75–7968 (13.2)78 (13.0)
 80+32 (6.2)32 (5.4)
Female, No. (%)296 (57.4)322 (53.8)
Education, No. (%)
 No formal education/illiterate216 (41.9)259 (43.3)
 Did not finish elementary school116 (22.5)132 (22.1)
 Sishu or elementary school135 (26.2)137 (22.9)
 Middle school or above49 (9.5)70 (11.7)
Marital Status, No. (%)
 Married/living together383 (74.2)469 (78.4)
Smoking status, No. (%)
 Never314 (60.9)357 (59.7)
 Former58 (11.2)72 (12.0)
 Current144 (27.9)169 (28.3)
Body mass index, kg/ m2
 Underweight, No. (%)56 (10.9)70 (11.7)
 Normal, No. (%)275 (53.3)330 (55.2)
 Overweight, No. (%)127 (24.6)135 (22.6)
 Obese, No. (%)58 (11.2)63 (10.5)
Number of chronic conditions, mean (SD)1.6 (1.2)1.5 (1.2)
Cognitive function a, mean (SD)10.2 (5.5)10.4 (5.4)
Frailty, No. (%)
 Non-frail195 (37.8)228 (38.1)
 Prefrail286 (55.4)330 (55.2)
 Frail35 (6.8)40 (6.7)
Severe disability b, No. (%)199 (38.6)280 (46.8)
  1. Abbreviations: ADL activities of daily living, IADL instrumental activities of daily living; SD standard deviation
  2. a Cognitive function was measured by the modified mini-mental status examination
  3. b Severe disability was defined as having difficulty in two or more ADL/IADL
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