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Table 2 Characteristics and comparing among the four groups

From: Association between motoric cognitive risk syndrome and frailty among older Chinese adults

 Healthy control (n = 301)Subjective cognitive complaints only (n = 68)Slow gait only (n = 43)MCR (n = 17)P-value
Age, years (mean ± SD)76.6 ± 7.675.7 ± 7.879.1 ± 7.776.7 ± 8.70.156
Male, n (%)189 (62.8)34 (50.0)27 (62.8)7 (41.2)0.092
High school and above, n (%)207 (68.8)40 (58.8)28 (65.1)8 (47.1)0.150
Married, n (%)239 (79.4)58 (85.3)29 (67.4)14 (82.4)0.154
Current or former smoker, n (%)73 (24.3)15 (22.1)9 (20.9)3 (17.6)0.885
Current or former drinker, n (%)74 (24.6)13 (19.1)9 (20.9)3 (17.6)0.710
BMI (mean ± SD, kg/m2)23.7 ± 3.022.8 ± 3.124.5 ± 3.824.4 ± 4.50.032
History of diabetes, n (%)76 (25.2)8 (11.8)13 (30.2)4 (23.5)0.079
History of cerebrovascular diseases, n (%)86 (28.6)19 (27.9)15 (34.9)9 (52.9)0.160
History of hypertension, n (%)223 (74.1)52 (76.5)36 (83.7)14 (82.4)0.500
History of coronary artery disease, n (%)93 (30.9)24 (35.3)15 (34.9)9 (52.9)0.273
Comorbidities (≥ 5 diseases), n (%)176 (58.5)42 (61.8)29 (67.4)12 (70.6)0.542
Polypharmacy (≥ 5 drugs), n (%)132 (43.9)27 (39.7)27 (62.8)12 (70.6)0.014
Fall history in the past year, n (%)50 (16.6)10 (14.7)8 (18.6)1 (5.9)0.643
Grip strength, (mean ± SD, kg)31.8 ± 9.229.7 ± 8.826.8 ± 9.723.0 ± 6.8< 0.001
Four-meter usual gait speed (mean ± SD, m/s)1.1 ± 0.21.1 ± 0.20.6 ± 0.10.6 ± 0.2< 0.001
Depressive symptoms from GDS-15 (mean ± SD, scores)1.6 ± 2.04.0 ± 2.72.7 ± 2.45.1 ± 2.9< 0.001
MMSE (mean ± SD, scores)27.6 ± 1.827.2 ± 1.826.9 ± 2.025.7 ± 1.7< 0.001
Frailty for CFS ≥ 5, n (%)33 (11.0)7 (10.3)16 (37.2)8 (47.1)< 0.001
  1. Abbreviations:BMI body mass index, GDS-15 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, CFS Clinical Frailty Scale
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