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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of participants by frailty status

From: Associations of sleep quality and sleep duration with frailty and pre-frailty in an elderly population Rugao longevity and ageing study

characteristicsAll (n = 1726)Robust (n = 656)Pre-frail (n = 911)Frail (n = 159)P_value
Age groups (years)    < 0.001
 70–74427 (24.7)204 (31.1)204 (22.4)19 (11.9) 
 75–79773 (44.8)314 (47.9)402 (44.1)57 (35.8) 
 80–84415 (24)120 (18.3)235 (25.8)60 (37.7) 
 85+111 (6.4)18 (2.7)70 (7.7)23 (14.5) 
Gender    < 0.001
 Male816 (47.3)385 (58.7)382 (42)49 (30.8) 
 Female909 (52.7)271 (41.3)528 (58)110 (69.2) 
Occupation    0.032
 Farmer1502 (88.6)566 (87.6)790 (88.6)146 (93) 
 Other193 (11.4)80 (12.4)102 (11.4)11 (7) 
Education    < 0.001
 Illiterate885 (51.6)260 (39.9)515 (57)110 (69.2) 
 Literate829 (48.4)391 (60.1)389 (43)49 (30.8) 
Marital status    < 0.001
 Current marital1126 (66)459 (70.8)585 (65)82 (52.2) 
 Other579 (34)189 (29.2)315 (35)75 (47.8) 
Smoking    < 0.001
 None1251 (73.7)427 (65.8)696 (77.9)128 (82.1) 
 Smoker301 (17.7)159 (24.5)123 (13.8)19 (12.2) 
 Ever146 (8.6)63 (9.7)74 (8.3)9 (5.8) 
Drinking    < 0.001
 None1098 (65.1)364 (56.7)617 (69.1)117 (76.5) 
 Drinker443 (26.2)218 (34)199 (22.3)26 (17) 
 Ever147 (8.7)60 (9.4)77 (8.6)10 (6.5) 
BMI category    0.163
  < 24931 (54.9)334 (51.9)509 (56.8)88 (56.1) 
 24–27.9574 (33.8)240 (37.3)291 (32.5)43 (27.4) 
  ≥ 28192 (11.3)70 (10.9)96 (10.7)26 (16.6) 
Perceived overall health status  0.448
 Good1432 (83.6)600 (92)738 (81.6)94 (59.5) 
 Poor282 (16.5)52 (8)166 (18.4)64 (40.5) 
Hypertension    0.171
 No436 (25.5)176 (27.2)221 (24.4)39 (24.5) 
 Yes1277 (74.6)472 (72.8)685 (75.6)120 (75.5) 
Diabetes    < 0.001
 No1401 (82.3)545 (84.4)734 (81.3)122 (79.2) 
 Yes302 (17.7)101 (15.6)169 (18.7)32 (20.8) 
MCI    < 0.001
 No889 (51.7)438 (67)408 (44.8)43 (27.4) 
 Yes832 (48.3)216 (33)502 (55.2)114 (72.6)