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Table 2 Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for the risk of dementia among patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and different cumulative defined daily doses of therapeutic bladder anticholinergics

From: Cumulative use of therapeutic bladder anticholinergics and the risk of dementia in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: a nationwide 12-year cohort study

 Univariate modelMultivariate model
HR(95% CI)PHR(95% CI)P
cDDD category
  < 281.00  1.00  
 28–840.86(0.70–1.05)0.1270.88(0.73–1.06)0.178
 85–3361.11(0.94–1.32)0.2211.15(0.97–1.37)0.107
  ≥ 3371.39(1.10–1.76)0.0061.40(1.12–1.75)0.004
Age (years)1.08(1.08–1.09)< 0.0011.08(1.08–1.09)< 0.001
Sex
 Male1.00  1.00  
 Female1.16(1.02–1.31)0.0231.35(1.19–1.53)< 0.001
Catastrophic illness certificate1.54(1.35–1.76)< 0.0011.24(1.09–1.42)0.001
Comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus1.23(1.04–1.46)0.0181.15(0.96–1.37)0.121
 Hyperlipidemia1.24(0.84–1.83)0.2741.53(1.04–2.24)0.029
 Hypertension1.20(1.03–1.41)0.0230.96(0.82–1.13)0.659
 CAD0.99(0.72–1.36)0.9630.72(0.53–0.97)0.034
 CVD2.46(1.89–3.21)< 0.0011.92(1.46–2.52)< 0.001
 Atrial fibrillation2.21(1.18–4.12)0.0131.41(0.75–2.63)0.281
Number of outpatient visits per year1.01(1.01–1.02)< 0.0011.01(1.00–1.01)< 0.001
  1. CAD Coronary artery disease, cDDDs Cumulative defined daily doses, CI Confidence interval, CVD Cerebrovascular disease, HR Hazard ratio.