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Table 2 Comparison in baseline characteristics between persons who with and without missing frailty data at follow-up

From: Incidence of frailty among community-dwelling older adults: a nationally representative profile in China

 No missing frailty dataHad missing frailty datap a
Characteristics(N = 3211)(N = 1728) 
Age, years, mean (SD)67.0 (5.8)68.2 (6.9)<.001
Male, No. (%)1691 (52.7%)814 (47.1%).001
Education, No. (%)  <.001
 No formal education or illiterate1017 (31.7%)693 (40.1%) 
 Did not finish elementary school b708 (22.1%)346 (20.0%) 
 Elementary school c863 (26.9%)399 (23.1%) 
 Middle school408 (12.7%)180 (10.4%) 
 High school or above d214 (6.7%)111 (6.4%) 
Marital status, No. (%)  <.001
 Married/living together2664 (83.0%)1356 (78.5%) 
 Others e547 (17.0%)371 (21.5%) 
Current residence, No. (%)  <.001
 Urban1085 (33.8%)684 (39.6%) 
 Rural2126 (66.2%)1045 (60.5%) 
Smoking
 Never1813 (56.5%)1003 (58.1).007
 Previous359 (11.2%)235 (13.6) 
 Current1039 (32.4)489 (28.3) 
Body mass index  .380
 underweight280 (8.7%)150 (8.7%) 
 normal2087 (65.1%)1090 (63.1%) 
 overweight838 (26.2%)487 (28.2%) 
Hypertension, No. (%)990 (30.9%)610 (35.3%).005
Diabetes, No. (%)228 (7.1%)136 (7.9%).380
Cancer f, No. (%)32 (1.0%)10 (0.6%).256
Cardiac disease, No. (%)480 (15.4%)290 (16.8%).145
Stroke, No. (%)89 (2.8%)59 (3.4%).246
Lung disease, No. (%)466 (14.6%)256 (14.8%).850
Liver disease, No. (%)122 (3.8%)67 (3.9%).968
Kidney disease, No. (%)202 (6.3%)74 (4.3%).010
Stomach disease, No. (%)754 (23.5%)352 (20.4%).022
Arthritis, No. (%)1225 (38.2%)651 (37.7%).750
ADL disability535 (16.7%)320 (18.4%).185
Frailty at baseline, No. (%)  <.001
 Non-frail1531 (47.7%)708 (41.0%) 
 Prefrail1680 (52.3%)1020 (59.0%) 
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, ADL activities of daily living
  2. a P-values were obtained by a t test with continuous variables and a χ2 test for categorical variables
  3. b But capable of reading or writing
  4. c Including traditional Chinese school (i.e., Sishu)
  5. d Including graduate from high school, vocational school, college, or post-graduate
  6. e Including widowed, separated, divorced, and never married
  7. f Non-melanoma skin cancer was excluded