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Table 2 Determinants of GP as well as specialist visits. Results of negative binomial regressions

From: Meaning in life and health care use: findings from a nationally representative study of older adults in Germany

Independent variablesGP visitsSpecialist visits
Meaning in life (from 1 = not at all to 5 = extremely)1.04**1.07**
 (1.01–1.08)(1.02–1.12)
Female (Ref.: male)1.05+1.78***
 (1.00–1.11)(1.66–1.91)
Age1.00+0.99*
 (1.00–1.01)(0.99–1.00)
Family status: - Married, living separated from spouse (Ref.: Married, living together with spouse)0.941.34*
 (0.77–1.16)(1.06–1.70)
– Divorced0.91+1.03
 (0.83–1.01)(0.91–1.16)
– Widowed1.020.90+
 (0.94–1.10)(0.80–1.01)
– Single0.940.94
 (0.82–1.07)(0.79–1.11)
Employment status: - Retired (Reference: Employed)1.22***1.22**
 (1.11–1.34)(1.08–1.38)
– Other: not employed1.051.15**
 (0.96–1.15)(1.04–1.29)
Log income0.88***1.17***
 (0.83–0.93)(1.08–1.27)
Self-rated health (from 1 = very good to 5 = very bad)1.27***1.24***
 (1.23–1.33)(1.18–1.31)
Depressive symptoms (from 0 (no depressive symptoms) to 45 (severe depressive symptoms))1.00*1.01***
 (1.00–1.01)(1.01–1.02)
Physical functioning (from 0 (worst) to 100 (best))1.00***1.00*
 (1.00–1.00)(1.00–1.00)
Number of physical illnesses (from 0 to 11)1.09***1.14***
 (1.08–1.11)(1.11–1.16)
Constant3.17***0.20***
 (1.87–5.38)(0.09–0.41)
Observations38443850
Pseudo R2.056.045
  1. Incidence rate ratios were reported; 95% CI in parentheses; *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05, + p < 0.10