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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample

From: Impaired kidney function is associated with lower cognitive function in the elder general population. Results from the Good Aging in Skåne (GÅS) cohort study

Variable  Groups divided by kidney function  p-valueAll participants
 eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2eGFR 30- < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2eGFR 45- < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2  
Number (%)70 (2.9)241 (9.9)483 (19.9)794 (32.7)1637 (67.3) 2431
Age (years)83.0 ± 8.583.8 ± 6.878.9 ± 8.380.9 ± 8.266.9 ± 7.8< 0.00171.4 ± 10.3
Sex no. (%)     < 0.001 
 women37 (52.9)156 (64.7)294 (60.9)487 (61.3)837 (51.1) 1324 (54.5)
 men33 (47.1)85 (35.3)189 (39.1)307 (38.7)800 (48.9) 1107 (45.5)
Education no. (%)     < 0.001 
 elementary school not completed1 (1.4)8 (3.3)20 (4.1)29 (3.7)41 (2.5) 70 (2.9)
 elementary school41 (58.6)147 (61.0)277 (57.3)465 (58.6)760 (46.4) 1225 (50.4)
 secondary school17 (24.3)67 (27.8)128 (26.5)212 (26.7)470 (28.7) 682 (28.1)
  > = 1 year extra or university degree11 (15.7)19 (7.9)58 (12.0)88 (11.1)366 (22.4) 454 (18.7)
Country of origin no. (%)     < 0.001 
 Sweden65 (92.9)232 (96.3)445 (92.1)742 (93.5)1441 (88.0) 2183 (89.8)
 other than Sweden5 (7.1)9 (3.7)38 (7.9)52 (6.5)196 (12.0) 248 (10.2)
Living no. (%)     0.810 
 in urban environment58 (82.9)210 (87.1)442 (91.5)710 (89.4)1469 (89.7) 2179 (89.6)
 in rural environment12 (17.1)31 (12.9)41 (8.5)84 (10.6)168 (10.3) 252 (10.4)
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Hypertension no. (%)     < 0.001 
 Yes37 (53.6)112 (46.9)189 (39.3)338 (42.8)330 (20.2) 668 (27.6)
 No32 (46.4)127 (53.1)292 (60.7)451 (57.2)1303 (79.8) 1754 (72.4)
 Smoking no. (%)     < 0.001 
 Active smoker7 (10)13 (5.4)61 (12.7)81 (10.2)341 (20.9) 422 (17.4)
 Former smoker35 (50)87 (36.1)168 (34.9)290 (36.6)642 (39.3) 932 (38.4)
 Never smoked28 (40)141 (58.5)253 (52.5)422 (53.2)651 (39.8) 1073 (44.2)
 Diabetes type 1 no. (%)     0.813 
 Yes2 (2.9)4 (1.7)1 (0.2)7 (0.9)13 (0.8) 20 (0.8)
 No67 (97.1)236 (98.3)478 (99.8)781 (99.1)1621 (99.2) 2402 (99.2)
 Diabetes type 2 no. (%)     0.011 
 Yes8 (11.4)20 (8.3)38 (7.9)66 (8.3)92 (5.6) 158 (6.5)
 No62 (88.6)220 (91.7)445 (92.1)727 (91.7)1544 (94.4) 2271 (93.5)
  1. Characteristics of the Good Aging in Skåne study sample in relation to kidney function; severely impaired (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2), moderately impaired (eGFR 30- < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2), mildly impaired (eGFR 45- < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and normal kidney function (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2)
  2. Distribution of the variables was tested between the groups with eGFR ≥60 and < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Pearson Chi-Square test was used for all variables except for age, where Mann-Whitney test was used
  3. Values above represent number of participants. Values within parenteses represent percentage. Values following ± represent SD
  4. Abbreviations: eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, SD Standard deviation