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Table 2 Coefficients from random-effects ordinal probit models for psychological well-being in the CLHLS

From: A longitudinal analysis of the association between the living arrangements and psychological well-being of older Chinese adults: the role of income sources

VariablesPsychological well-being
Model 1Model 2Model 3
Socio-demographic factors
 Age0.01 (0.01–0.01) ***0.01 (0.01–0.01) ***0.01 (0.01–0.01) ***
 Wave−0.00 (− 0.01 - − 0.00) *−0.00 (− 0.01–0.00)-0.00 (− 0.01 - -0.00) *
 Rural (vs. urban)−0.15 (− 0.17 - -0.12)***− 0.13 (− 0.15 - -0.10) ***−0.13 (− 0.15 - − 0.10)***
 Female (vs. male)-0.10 (− 0.13 - -0.07)***−0.08 (− 0.11 - -0.05) ***−0.08 (− 0.11 - -0.05)***
 Minority (vs. Han)0.01 (− 0.05–0.06)0.01 (− 0.05–0.07)0.01 (−0.05–0.07)
 Married (vs. unmarried)0.14 (0.11–0.18) ***0.12 (0.08–0.15) ***0.12 (0.08–0.15) ***
 Child alive (vs. no child alive)0.08 (0.03–0.13) **0.07 (0.02–0.12) **0.08 (0.03–0.12) **
 Sibling alive (vs. no sibling alive)0.05 (0.02–0.08) ***0.05 (0.02–0.08) **0.05 (0.02–0.08) **
 Education0.00 (0.00–0.01) ***0.00 (0.00–0.00) ***0.00 (0.00–0.00) ***
 Professional occupation (vs. non-professional)0.15 (0.10–0.19) ***0.13 (0.09–0.18) ***0.13 (0.09–0.18) ***
 Financially sufficient (vs. insufficient)0.50 (0.47–0.53) ***0.49 (0.46–0.52) ***0.49 (0.46–0.52) ***
 Social support (vs.no)0.12 (0.06–0.17) ***0.12 (0.07–0.18) ***0.12 (0.06–0.17) ***
Health behaviours
 Current smoker (vs. no)0.04 (0.00–0.07) *0.04 (0.01–0.08) *0.04 (0.01–0.08) *
 Current drinker (vs. no)0.10 (0.07–0.13) ***0.10 (0.06–0.13) ***0.10 (0.06–0.13) ***
 Regular exercise (vs. no)0.30 (0.27–0.32) ***0.29 (0.26–0.32) ***0.29 (0.26–0.32) ***
Health status
 Chronic diseases−0.08 (− 0.10 - -0.07)***−0.08 (− 0.10 - -0.07) ***−0.08 (− 0.10 - -0.07)***
 ADL disability0.02 (− 0.00–0.04)0.02 (− 0.00–0.04)0.02 (−0.00–0.04)
 Cognitively impaired (vs. non-impaired)0.50 (0.47–0.54) ***0.51 (0.47–0.54) ***0.51 (0.47–0.54) ***
Living arrangements (vs. living alone)
 With family0.31 (0.27–0.35)***0.31 (0.27–0.35)***0.29 (0.24–0.33)***
 Institution0.26 (0.19–0.34)***0.28 (0.20–0.36)***0.34 (0.19–0.49)***
Income sources (vs. financial self-support)
 Children support −0.12 (− 0.15 - -0.09)***−0.08 (− 0.16 - -0.00)*
 Government support −0.14 (− 0.20 - -0.08)***−0.24 (− 0.35 - -0.12)***
Living arrangements*Income sources
 With family*children support  0.04 (−0.04–0.13)
 With family*government support  0.16 (0.03–0.28)*
 Institution* children support  −0.22 (− 0.41 - -0.02)*
 Institution* government support  0.12 (−0.08–0.32)
 Variance of random effect0.18 (0.16–0.20)***0.17 (0.15–0.20)***0.18 (0.15–0.20)***
 LR test358.36***346.62***346.09***
  1. Notes. ADL activities of daily living, LR likelihood ratio
  2. *P < .05, **P < .01, ***P < .001