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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants stratified by living arrangements in the CLHLS

From: A longitudinal analysis of the association between the living arrangements and psychological well-being of older Chinese adults: the role of income sources

VariablesTotalAloneWith familyInstitutionP Value
(n = 16,020)(n = 2159)(n = 13,122)(n = 739)
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Socio-demographic factors
 Age, mean (SD)86.39 (11.66)86.43 (10.79)86.27 (11.91)88.42 (9.08)< 0.01
 Rural8646 (53.97)1259 (58.31)7166 (54.61)221 (29.91)< 0.01
 Female9194 (57.39)1346 (62.34)7444 (56.73)404 (54.67)< 0.01
 Minority895 (5.59)94 (4.35)778 (5.93)23 (3.11)< 0.01
 Married5005 (31.24)84 (3.89)4865 (37.08)56 (7.58)< 0.01
 Child alive14,115 (88.11)1816 (84.11)11,908 (90.75)391 (52.91)< 0.01
 Sibling alive7230 (45.13)950 (44.00)6046 (46.08)234 (31.66)< 0.01
 Education, mean (SD)2.01 (3.48)1.69 (3.05)2.06 (3.52)2.24 (3.85)< 0.01
 Professional occupation1679 (10.48)236 (10.93)1269 (9.67)174 (23.55)< 0.01
 Financially sufficient12,910 (80.59)1564 (72.0)10,760 (82.00)586 (79.30)< 0.01
 Social support15,688 (97.93)1951 (90.37)13,018 (99.21)719 (97.29)< 0.01
Health behaviours
 Current smoker2965 (18.51)382 (17.69)2466 (18.79)117 (15.83)0.08
 Current drinker3291 (20.54)403 (18.67)2757 (21.01)131 (17.73)0.01
 Regular exercise5075 (31.68)601 (27.84)4167 (31.76)307 (41.54)< 0.01
Chronic diseases    < 0.01
 No6137 (38.31)844 (39.09)5059 (38.55)234 (31.66) 
 One5104 (31.86)640 (29.64)4234 (32.27)230 (31.12) 
 Two or more4779 (29.83)675 (31.26)3829 (29.18)275 (37.21) 
ADL disability    < 0.01
 No11,112 (69.36)1709 (79.16)8919 (67.97)484 (65.49) 
 One2101 (13.11)229 (10.61)1770 (13.49)102 (13.80) 
 Two or more2807 (17.52)221 (10.24)2433 (18.54)153 (20.70) 
Cognitively impaired4581 (28.60)576 (26.68)3751 (28.59)254 (34.37)< 0.01
Income sources   < 0.01
 financial self-support4490 (28.03)503 (23.30)3829 (29.18)158 (21.38) 
 Children support10,448 (65.22)1394 (64.57)8828 (67.28)226 (30.58) 
 Government support1082 (6.75)262 (12.14)465 (3.54)355 (48.04) 
PWB, mean (SD)22.80 (4.26)21.18 (4.46)23.05 (4.17)23.13 (4.22)< 0.01
  1. Notes. SD standard deviation, ADL activities of daily living, PWB psychological well-being