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Table 1 German policies and definitions of terms specific to German long-term care

From: Claims data-based analysis of the influence of individual and regional characteristics on the utilisation of long-term care by people with dementia in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany

Outpatient careOutpatient care includes nursing, care and support services, and support with housekeeping
Informal careInformal care includes in-cash benefits to compensate informal caregivers.
Respite careRespite care is a term to describe any kind of temporary provision of care in order to give the caregiver temporary relief from caregiving [10]. In this article and based on German LTC insurance understanding, we define respite care as adult day care and adult night care, provided in a dedicated institution.
Levels of care dependency for people with dementia in 2013In the year 2013, there were three LoCD and an additional LoCD 0 for people with a limited capability to manage their everyday life. With a higher LoCD the claim for benefits increases. A LoCD 0 does not allow claiming all kinds of LTC services. In the year 2013, amongst others, the following services were available in the different LoCD:
LoCD 0: in-kind services in-cash services
LoCD 1–3: in-kind services, in-cash services, nursing home care, respite care
Hardship case: Hardship cases are people in LoCD 3 who receive more benefits due to severe need for LTC.
[3, 6, 7, 11]
Long-Term Care Benefits Amendment ActEntry into force: January 2002
Changes for people with dementia: first time possibility to claim financial aids through LTC insurance by people with dementia to use for care and support services; introduction of the so-called ‘LoCD 0’ [12]
Long-Term Care Further Development ActEntry into force: July 2008
Changes for people with dementia: increase in the amount of benefits to claim [13]
Act to Realign Long-Term CareEntry into force: January 2013
Changes for people with dementia: first time possibility to claim in-kind or in-cash benefits in home care for people with dementia in a LoCD 0 [14]
1st Act to Strengthen Long-Term CareEntry into force: January 2015
Changes for people with dementia: first time possibility to claim respite care benefits, short-term care, and substitutional care (for when the informal caregiver is on vacation) [15]
2nd Act to Strengthen Long-Term CareEntry into force: January 2017
Introduction of the new definition of the need of long-term care, considering not only physical but also cognitive impairments [9]