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Table 3 Association Between System Factors, Fall Type, and Fall Outcome

From: Patient and system factors associated with unassisted and injurious falls in hospitals: an observational study

 Fall Type (n = 353) Fall Outcome* (n = 352)
System FactorLevelAssisted, n (%)Unassisted, n (%)p valueNon-Injurious, n (%)Injurious, n (%)p value
Last Assessed<  1 h63 (26.8)172 (73.2).50164 (70.1)70 (29.9).77
1–2 h10 (26.3)28 (73.7) 25 (65.8)13 (34.2) 
>  2 h4 (44.5)5 (55.6) 7 (77.8)2 (22.2) 
Fall AssistedNo   167 (63.7)95 (36.3).004
Yes   72 (80.0)18 (20.0) 
Alarms in UseNo43 (22.8)146 (77.2).20119 (63.3)69 (36.7).048
Yes47 (28.7)117 (71.3) 120 (73.2)44 (26.8) 
Non Slip Floor Mat§No88 (25.5)257 (74.5)>.99233 (67.7)111 (32.3).73
Yes2 (25.0)6 (75.0) 6 (75.0)2 (25.0) 
Low Bed§No28 (22.0)99 (78.0).2788 (69.8)38 (30.2).56
Yes62 (27.4)164 (72.6) 151 (66.8)75 (33.2) 
Patient and Family Education§No41 (23.3)135 (76.7).34115 (65.7)60 (34.3).38
Yes49 (27.7)128 (72.3) 124 (70.1)53 (29.9) 
Gait Belt Identified as InterventionǁNo25 (12.4)177 (87.6)<.001138 (68.7)63 (31.3).73
Yes65 (43.0)86 (57.0) 101 (66.9)50 (33.1) 
Fall Assistance and Gait Belt UsageStaff not providing hands on assist prior to fall2 (0.80)263 (99.2)NA167 (63.3)97 (36.7).002
Staff providing hands on assist prior to fall but without gait belt42 (100.0)0 (0.0) 31 (73.8)11 (26.2) 
Staff providing hands on assist prior to fall with gait belt46 (100.0)0 (0.0) 41 (89.1)5 (10.9) 
Sitter§No88 (25.8)253 (74.2).54229 (67.4)111 (32.6).35
Yes2 (16.7)10 (83.3) 10 (83.3)2 (16.7) 
Toileting Schedule§No65 (23.4)213 (76.6).08181 (65.3)96 (34.7).048
Yes25 (33.3)50 (66.7) 58 (77.3)17 (22.7) 
Patient Close to Nurse’s Station§No73 (28.9)180 (71.1).02168 (66.7)84 (33.3).43
Yes17 (17.0)83 (83.0) 71 (71.0)29 (29.0) 
Purposeful Hourly Rounding§No36 (21.2)134 (78.8).07110 (64.7)60 (35.3).22
Yes54 (29.5)129 (70.5) 129 (70.9)53 (29.1) 
  1. *Injury was unspecified for one fall
  2. p value calculated using Pearson Chi-Square Test or Exact Pearson Chi-Square Test
  3. “Alarms in Use” was categorized as being in place if the hospital identified either bed or chair alarms as interventions to be used to prevent the reported fall. It does not necessarily mean that an alarm was sounding at the time of the fall
  4. §System characteristic deemed to be present if the hospital identified this intervention as in use to prevent the reported fall
  5. ǁ“Gait Belt Identified as Intervention” was categorized as being in place if the hospital identified a gait belt as an intervention to be used to prevent the reported fall (i.e. gait belt use was in the nursing care plan). It does not necessarily mean a gait belt was in use at the time of the fall
  6. “Fall Assistance and Gait Belt Usage” indicates whether hands on assist was being provided at the time of the fall, and whether or not a gait belt was being used to provide that assistance. For the purposes of this system variable, the 2 falls in the “Assisted” column for the row “Staff not providing hands on assist prior to fall” reflect 2 falls in which staff were not providing hands on assist immediately prior to the fall but did provide hands on assist once the patient began to fall