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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of SLAS-1 Chinese older adults by physical, mental and social frailty status

From: A bio-psycho-social approach for frailty amongst Singaporean Chinese community-dwelling older adults – evidence from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study

VariablesTotalPhysical Frailty (PF)Mental Frailty (MF)Social Frailty (SF)
N = 2387 (%)No PF (N = 1233)PF (N = 1154)pNo MF (N = 1730)MF (N = 657)pNo SF (N = 1949)SF (N = 438)p
Age, mean (SD) years66.1 (7.61)64.2 (6.36)68.0 (8.34)< 0.00165.1 (6.99)68.5 (8.61)< 0.00165.0 (7.31)69.3 (8.12)< 0.001
Male876 (36.7)493 (40.0)383 (33.2)0.001668 (38.6)208 (31.7)0.002748 (38.12)133 (30.4)0.002
Single, Divorced Or Widowed603 (25.2)237 (19.2)365 (31.6)< 0.001378 (21.9)224 (34.1)< 0.001385 (19.8)217 (49.5)< 0.001
Current smoking (versus others)154 (6.5)61 (5.0)93 (8.1)0.002101 (5.8)53 (8.1)0.047113 (5.8)41 (9.4)0.006
Current and past smoking401 (16.8)191 (15.5)210 (18.2)0.080267 (15.4)134 (20.4)0.004296 (15.2)105 (24.0)< 0.001
Alcohol drinking258 (10.8)168 (13.6)90 (7.8)< 0.001210 (12.1)48 (7.3)0.001223 (11.4)25 (8.0)0.036
NSI Risk (3 and above)1185 (49.6)527 (42.7)658 (57.0)< 0.001729 (42.1)456 (69.4)< 0.001911 (46.7)274 (62.6)< 0.001
Obese (BMI ≥ 27.5)310 (13.0)134 (10.9)176 (15.3)0.001222 (12.8)88 (13.4)0.696252 (12.9)58 (13.3)0.834
Underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5)133 (5.6)0 (0.0)133 (11.5)< 0.00181 (4.7)52 (7.9)0.00299 (4.8)40 (9.1)< 0.001
Hypertension1340 (56.1)656 (53.2)684 (59.3)0.003953 (55.1)387 (58.9)0.0931073 (55.1)267 (61.0)0.024
High Blood Pressure1087 (45.5)532 (43.2)555 (48.1)0.015770 (44.5)317 (48.3)0.101886 (45.5)201 (45.9)0.87
High Cholesterol1017 (42.9)512 (42.0)505 (43.9)0.339733 (42.7)284 (43.5)0.725852 (44.1)165 (37.7)0.014
Low cholesterol179 (7.5)78 (6.3)101 (8.8)0.025118 (6.8)61 (9.3)0.041135 (6.93)44 (10.1)0.025
Diabetes411 (17.2)180 (14.6)231 (20.0)< 0.001276 (16.0)135 (20.6)0.008329 (16.9)82 (18.7)0.356
Coronary heart disease123 (5.2)48 (3.9)75 (6.5)0.00486 (5.0)37 (5.6)0.51494 (4.8)29 (6.6)0.124
Cardiac Disease194 (8.1)81 (6.6)113 (9.8)0.004130 (7.5)64 (9.7)0.075151 (7.8)43 (9.8)0.152
Stroke87 (3.6)23 (1.9)64 (5.6)< 0.00145 (2.6)42 (6.4)< 0.00162 (3.2)25 (5.7)0.011
Cancer43 (1.8)23 (1.9)20 (1.7)0.80831 (1.8)12 (1.8)0.95535 (1.8)8 (1.8)0.965
Arthritis325 (13.6)151 (12.3)173 (15.0)0.052217 (12.6)107 (16.3)0.016263 (13.5)61 (13.9)0.823
Asthma/COPD596 (25.0)270 (21.9)326 (28.3)< 0.001381 (22.0)215 (32.7)< 0.001460 (23.6)136 (31.1)0.001
Hip Fracture20 (0.8)5 (0.4)15 (1.3)0.0178 (0.5)12 (1.8)0.00113 (0.7)7 (1.6)0.053
Chronic kidney disease993 (42.0)428 (34.9)565 (49.7)< 0.001661 (38.5)332 (51.5)< 0.001777 (40.2)216 (50.1)< 0.001
Metabolic Syndrome656 (27.7)316 (25.8)340 (29.8)0.032464 (27.1)192 (29.5)0.220526 (27.2)130 (30.0)0.246
Neuropsychiatric illness (N = 2384)87 (3.7)33 (2.7)54 (4.7)0.00939 (2.3)48 (7.3)< 0.00160 (3.1)27 (6.2)0.002
Hearing Impairment64 (2.7)27 (2.2)37 (3.2)0.12432 (1.9)32 (4.9)< 0.00140 (2.1)24 (5.5)< 0.001
Visual Impairment809 (33.9)332 (26.9)477 (41.3)< 0.001548 (31.7)261 (39.7)< 0.001642 (32.9)167 (38.1)0.038
Comorbidity1018 (42.65)451 (36.58)567 (49.13)< 0.001702 (40.58)316 (48.10)0.001820 (42.07)198 (45.21)0.231
Hospitalization for any condition in the past year95 (4.0)40 (3.2)55 (4.8)0.05757 (3.3)38 (5.8)0.00581 (4.2)14 (3.2)0.353
Polypharmacy (taking 6 or more drugs)254 (10.6)99 (8.0)153 (13.3)< 0.001155 (9.0)97 (14.8)< 0.001207 (10.6)45 (10.3)0.831
Physician Visit in the past year (SD)4.07 (5.40)3.66 (4.51)4.50 (6.18)< 0.0013.83 (4.56)4.71 (7.12)< 0.0014.04 (4.75)4.21 (7.65)0.28
  1. Footnotes: Metabolic syndrome was defined using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria25: central obesity (waist circumference ≥ 90 for male and ≥ 80 for female) plus at least 2 CVRF: raised triglyceride level (≥150 mg/dL (1.7 mmol/L) or specific treatment for this lipid abnormality); reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol (< 40 mg/dL (1.03 mmol/L) in males and < 50 mg/dL (1.29 mmol/L) in females or specific treatment for this lipid abnormality); raised blood pressure (BP) (systolic BP ≥ 130 or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg, or treatment of previously diagnosed hypertension), and raised fasting plasma glucose (≥ 100 mg/dL or 5.6 mmol/L), or previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes)
  2. Chronic kidney disease: eGFR (< 60 mL/min/1.73 m2; COPD: FEV1/FVC < 0.70
  3. Neuropsychiatric illnesses: depression, psychosis, anxiety, dementia, Parkinson’s disease
  4. Significance Tests: independent sample t-tests were conducted for continuous variables, chi-square for categorical variables