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Table 2 Baseline Characteristics of Participants (including all participants assessed at baseline and at 12-month follow-up)

From: Enhanced coordination of care to reduce medication risks in older home care clients in primary care: a randomized controlled trial

 NTotalIntervention Group (N = 65)Control Group (N = 64)pc
Female, n (%)12990 (69.8)44 (67.7)46 (71.9)0.61
Mean age; years, (SD), range12982.8 (7.1), 65–9681.6 (7.1), 65–9584.0 (6.8), 67–960.05
Age group, n (%)129   0.08
 65–69 8 (6.2)5 (7.7)3 (4.7) 
 70–74 9 (7.0)5 (7.7)4 (6.3) 
 75–79 17 (13.2)13 (20.0)4 (6.3) 
 80–84 41 (31.8)21 (32.3)20 (31.3) 
 85- 54 (41.9)21 (32.3)33 (51.6) 
Living alone, n (%)126104 (80.6)53 (84.1)51 (81.0)0.64
Rava indexa,b [29], mean (SD)1281.98 (0.61)2.19 (0.63)1.77 (0.51)< 0.001
MD 1.832.081.59 
MNA Screeningb [30]127   0.14
 Normal nutritional status (12–14 points), n (%) 65 (51.2)30 (46.9)35 (55.6) 
 At risk of malnutrition (8–11 points), n (%) 54 (42.5)32 (50.0)22 (34.9) 
 Malnourished (0–7 points), n (%) 8 (6.3)2 (3.1)6 (9.5) 
MMSEb [31]126   0.44
25–30 (no cognitive impairment), n (%) 44 (34.9)19 (30.7)25 (39.1) 
18–24 (mild cognitive impairment), n (%) 70 (55.6)38 (61.3)32 (50.0) 
0–17 (severe cognitive impairment), n (%) 12 (9.5)5 (8.1)7 (10.9) 
GDS-15b [32] >  6 (suggestive of depression), n (%)12739 (30.7)21 (33.3)18 (28.1)0.52
Proportion with orthostatic hypotension [33], n (%)10624 (22.6)14 (29.2)10 (17.2)0.14
UDI-6 [34], mean (SD)1263.2 (4.0)3.3 (4.4)3.2 (3.6)0.92
MD 2.02.02.0 
AUDIT-C [35], mean (SD)1280.9 (1.7)1.2 (1.9)0.7 (1.5)0.59
MD 0.00.00.0 
The five-times-sit-to-stand testb [36, 37]. Participants with inability to complete the test, n (%)12852 (40.6)32 (50.0)20 (31.3)0.03
Medication use129    
Number of regular medications, mean (SD) 10.1 (3.3)10.4 (3.3)9.8 (3.2)0.25
Number of pro re nata medications, mean (SD) 3.0 (1.8)3.1 (1.7)2.9 (1.8)0.54
Number of all medications, mean (SD) 13.1 (4.1)13.5 (3.9)12.7 (4.3)0.25
Number of all medication, classified    0.53
1–6, n (%) 5 (3.9)1 (1.5)4 (6.3) 
7–9, n (%) 16 (12.4)7 (10.8)9 (14.1) 
10–15, n (%) 76 (58.9)40 (61.5)36 (56.3) 
16+, n (%) 32 (24.8)17 (26.2)15 (23.4) 
  1. SD standard deviation, MD median, MNA The Mini Nutritional Assessment, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, GDS-15 Geriatric Depression Scale, UDI-6 (Urinary Distress Inventory), AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, version C)
  2. aRava index describes the need of help based on functional ability (scale 1.29–4.03; results 1.50–1.99 mean need for regular help); bMeasure used in usual clinical practice in Lohja Home Care; cDifferences between the groups were tested with Chi-squared test or Fischer exact test in categorical variables and with Mann-Whitney test or two-sample t-test in continuous variables
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