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Table 2 Parameter estimates, Standard Errors and p values from adjusted linear mixed regression models for episodic memory scores

From: Cardiovascular risk factors and memory decline in middle-aged and older adults: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

 Unadjusted modelsAdjusted models
ParameterCategoriesMiddle-agedOlder adultsMiddle-agedOlder people
EstimationSEpEstimationSEpEstimationSEpEstimationSEp
Intercept       8.3840.220<.00016.600.311<.0001
Time (per year) 0.0100.005.039−0.1150.007<.00010.0400.011.001−0.0960.019<.0001
CVRFsNoneRef.  Ref.  Ref.  Ref.  
One−0.4700.105<.0001−0.3760.161.020− 0.0560.1060.5990.1390.1570.378
Two−1.1010.115<.0001−0.7920.166<.0001− 0.2450.1180.0380.1110.1640.498
Three or more−1.4630.131<.0001−1.4140.174<.0001−0.2410.1370.080−0.1940.1750.268
Age (centred) −0.1320.009<.0001−0.1970.012<.0001−0.1100.008<.0001−0.1530.011<.0001
CES-D −0.2480.019<.0001−0.2460.027<.0001−0.1490.018<.0001−0.1190.025<.0001
Missing-data patternNon-completersRef.  Ref.  Ref.  Ref.  
Completers0.9610.077<.00011.6020.097<.00010.5500.069<.00011.0900.091<.0001
Wealth1-quintile (lowest)Ref.  Ref.  Ref.  Ref.  
2-quintile0.6410.076<.00010.8490.156<.00010.2210.121.0680.5150.143<.0001
3-quintile1.2650.128<.00011.3400.155<.00010.5320.123<.00010.7800.146<.0001
4-quintile1.7610.126<.00011.7280.153<.00010.7460.124<.00010.8750.150<.0001
5-quintile (highest)2.1050.124<.00012.4760.155<.00010.9730.128<.00011.3710.159<.0001
GenderMalesRef.  Ref.  Ref.  Ref.  
Female0.6680.076<.00010.6120.101<.00010.8630.069<.00010.8550.094<.0001
Education levelLowRef.  Ref.  Ref.  Ref.  
Medium1.4700.090<.00011.3750.113<.00011.0340.087<.00010.9640.106<.0001
High2.2670.087<.00012.0550.122<.00011.7110.090<.00011.4430.122<.0001
Marital statusNever marriedRef.  Ref.  Ref.  Ref.  
Married/remarried0.5550.167.0010.8850.245<.00010.2550.146.0820.3530.214.099
Legally separated or divorced0.2620.1900.1670.7330.2970.0140.2950.166.0750.4340.258.092
Widowed0.0130.2290.9540.5240.2590.0430.2020.202.3160.5600.226.013
Non-CVDsNoneRef.  Ref.  Ref.  Ref.  
One−0.2500.085.0030.0170.1090.8750.0500.075.5060.1560.096.106
Two or more−0.5460.135<.0001−0.0720.1550.6410.1220.123.3220.3480.139.013
CVDsNoneRef.  Ref.  Ref.  Ref.  
One−0.6680.133<.0001−0.3630.131<.001−0.1570.118.181−0.0170.115.883
Two or more−1.2890.241<.0001−0.7530.198<.0001−0.1540.216.478−0.0680.175.695
CVRFs*timeNone*time      Ref.  Ref.  
One*time (per yr)      −0.0350.014.013−0.0350.022.122
Two*time (per yr)      −0.450.015.003−0.0300.023.197
Three or more*time (per yr)      −0.0610.018.001−0.0270.025.286
Random variance
Intercept       3.4380.186<.00014.1010.263<.0001
Linear slope       0.0620.010<.0010.1220.016<.0001
Residual       4.9680.060<.0015.3130.082<.0001
  1. Note: In bold, significant effect
  2. SE Standard error, CVRFs Cardiovascular risk factors score, CES-D Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CVDs Cardiovascular diseases, non-CVDs non cardiovascular diseases
  3. CES-D scores ranged from 0 to 8; Episodic memory scores ranged from 0 to 20; low education level included people with no qualifications