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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the overall sample (N = 7377) and by age groups

From: Cardiovascular risk factors and memory decline in middle-aged and older adults: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

Age group
 Overall sample50–6465–79P value
N = 7377n = 4372 (59.3%)n = 3005 (40.7%)
Socio-demographics characteristics
 Female, n (%)3996 (54.2%)2349 (53.7%)1647 (54.8%).360
 Age, mean (SD)62.6 (8.1)56.8 (4.1)71 (4.1)<.001
Marital status, n (%)
 Never married380 (5.2%)244 (5.6%)136 (4.5%)<.001
 Married/remarried5190 (70.4%)3257 (74.5%)1933 (64.3%) 
 Separated/divorced870 (11.8%)632 (14.5%)238 (7.9%) 
 Widowed937 (12.7%)239 (5.5%)698 (23.2%) 
Education level, n (%)   <.001
 Low2785 (37.8%)1304 (29.8%)1481 (49.3%) 
 Medium2269 (30.8%)1408 (32.2%)861 (28.7%) 
 High2323 (31.5%)1660 (38.0%)663 (22.1%) 
Quintiles of wealth, n (%)   <.001
 Lowest1163 (15.8%)596 (13.6%)567 (18.9%) 
 2nd1405 (19.1%)808 (18.5%)597 (19.9%) 
 3rd1516 (20.6%)904 (20.7%)612 (20.4%) 
 4th1625 (22%)992 (22.7%)633 (21.1%) 
 Highest1668 (22.6%)1072 (24.5%)596 (19.8%) 
Cardiovascular risk factors
 High blood pressure, n (%)2671 (36.2%)1340 (30.6%)1331 (44.3%)<.001
 Diabetes, n (%)476 (6.5%)205 (4.7%)271 (9.0%)<.001
 Obesity, n (%)1914 (26%)1128 (25.8%)786 (26.2%).732
 Currently or past smoking, n (%)4711 (63.9%)2784 (63.7%)1927 (64.1%).694
 Physical inactivity, n (%)1427 (19.3%)714 (16.3%)713 (23.7%)<.001
Number of cardiovascular risk factors, n (%)   <.001
 None1172 (15.9%)785 (18.0%)387 (12.9%) 
 One2876 (39%)1810 (41.4%)1066 (35.5%) 
 Two2014 (27.3%)1130 (25.8%)884 (29.4%) 
 Three or more1315 (17.8%)647 (14.8%)668 (22.2%) 
Non-CVDs
 Chronic lung disease, n (%)440 (6%)214 (4.9%)226 (7.5%)<.001
 Asthma, n (%)852 (11.6%)519 (11.9%)333 (11.1%)0.297
 Arthritis, n (%)2241 (30.4%)1129 (25.8%)1112 (37.0%)<.001
 Osteoporosis, n (%)327 (4.4%)132 (3.0%)195 (6.5%)<.001
 Cancer, n (%)413 (5.6%)204 (4.7%)209 (7.0%)<.001
Number of non-CVDs, n (%)   <.001
 None4081 (55.3%)2655 (60.7%)1426 (47.5%) 
 One2484 (33.7%)1319 (30.2%)1165 (38.8%) 
 Two or more812 (11%)398 (9.1%)414 (13.8%) 
CVDs
 Angina, n (%)629 (8.5%)232 (5.3%)397 (13.2%)<.001
 Heart attack, n (%)379 (5.1%)138 (3.2%)241 (8.0%)<.001
 Congestive heart failure, n (%)48 (0.7%)13 (0.3%)35 (1.2%)<.001
 Abnormal heart rhythm, n (%)431 (5.8%)204 (4.7%)227 (7.6%)<.001
 Stroke, n (%)217 (2.9%)74 (1.7%)143 (4.8%)<.001
Number of CVDs, n (%)   <.001
 None6103 (82.7%)3868 (88.5%)2235 (74.4%) 
 One945 (12.8%)392 (9.0%)553 (18.4%) 
 Two or more329 (4.5%)112 (2.6%)217 (7.2%) 
Missing-data pattern
 Completer, n (%)3924 (53.2%)2553 (58.4%)1371 (45.6%)<.001
 Non-completer, n (%)3453 (46.8%)1819 (41.6%)1634 (54.4%) 
Depression
 CES-D, mean (SD)1.5 (1.9)1.4 (2)1.5 (1.9).005
Outcome
 Immediate recall, mean (SD)5.70 (1.63)6.06 (1.55)5.18 (1.61)<.001
 Delayed recall, mean (SD)4.28 (1.99)4.74 (1.86)3.61 (1.98)<.001
 Total score episodic memory, mean (SD)10.0 (3.3)10.8 (3.1)8.8 (3.3)<.001
  1. Note: SD Standard Deviation, CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, non CVDs non-cardiovascular diseases, CVDs Cardiovascular diseases. CES-D scores ranged from 0 to 8; immediate and delayed recall ranged from 0 to 10; total score for episodic memory ranged from 0 to 20; low education level included people with no qualifications