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Table 4 Hazard ratios (95% CI) for three-year all-cause mortality according to sarcopenia definition, muscle mass and body composition, muscle strength and physical performance

From: Sarcopenia prevalence and associations with mortality and hospitalisation by various sarcopenia definitions in 85–89 year old community-dwelling men: a report from the ULSAM study

 Model 1
HR (95% CI)
pModel 2
HR (95% CI)
pModel 3
HR (95% CI)
p
Sarcopenia (EWGSOP)1.97 (1.14–3.39)0.0151.90 (1.10–3.28)0.0211.95 (1.12–3.40)0.019
Probable sarcopenia (EWGSOP2)3.82 (1.64–8.87)0.0023.17 (1.34–7.49)0.0083.26 (1.38–7.70)0.007
Sarcopenia (EWGSOP2)1.50 (0.84–2.65)0.171.55 (0.87–2.75)0.141.70 (0.94–3.05)0.078
Sarcopenia (FNIH)1.96 (0.93–4.13)0.0771.62 (0.75–3.50)0.221.65 (0.73–3.72)0.23
Muscle mass measurements and body composition
 SMIb, kg/m20.69 (0.54–0.90)0.0050.68 (0.52–0.87)0.0030.64 (0.50–0.82)< 0.001
  < 7.0 kg/m21.29 (0.74–2.24)0.371.42 (0.81–2.49)0.221.57 (0.89–2.78)0.12
  < 7.26 kg/m21.73 (1.04–2.88)0.0331.77 (1.07–2.94)0.0261.94 (1.15–3.28)0.013
 ASMMb, kg0.68 (0.53–0.89)0.0040.67 (0.51–0.87)0.0030.65 (0.50–0.83)0.001
  < 19.75 kg2.24 (1.30–3.85)0.0042.31 (1.34–3.99)0.0032.56 (1.46–4.47)0.001
  < 20 kg1.96 (1.15–3.36)0.0142.06 (1.20–3.54)0.0092.01 (1.17–3.46)0.012
 ALMbBMI0.94 (0.72–1.22)0.640.98 (0.76–1.27)0.881.05 (0.81–1.37)0.69
  < 0.7891.38 (0.78–2.44)0.271.26 (0.71–2.25)0.431.05 (0.57–1.96)0.87
 BMIb, kg/m20.75 (0.57–0.99)0.0390.73 (0.56–0.95)0.0170.65 (0.50–0.84)0.001
 FMbtot, kg0.90 (0.70–1.17)0.440.86 (0.67–1.10)0.230.79 (0.62–1.01)0.056
 FMIb, kg/m20.94 (0.73–1.21)0.630.88 (0.69–1.14)0.340.80 (0.63–1.02)0.077
Muscle strength and physical performance
 HGSb, kg0.61 (0.47–0.80)< 0.0010.65 (0.49–0.85)0.0010.62 (0.47–0.82)< 0.001
  < 30 kg1.97 (1.17–3.33)0.0111.83 (1.08–3.11)0.0251.87 (1.10–3.18)0.021
  < 27 kg1.64 (0.97–2.78)0.0661.52 (0.89–2.59)0.121.56 (0.91–2.69)0.11
  < 26 kg1.78 (1.03–3.11)0.0401.60 (0.91–2.82)0.101.76 (0.97–3.20)0.062
 GSb, m/s0.58 (0.45–0.74)< 0.0010.62 (0.48–0.81)< 0.0010.61 (0.46–0.81)0.001
  ≤0.8 m/s2.67 (1.21–5.88)0.0152.13 (0.95–4.76)0.0652.24 (0.94–5.31)0.067
  < 0.8 m/s2.24 (0.89–5.60)0.0851.66 (0.65–4.23)0.291.69 (0.62–4.59)0.30
 CSa, b, sec1.26 (1.04–1.53)0.0201.13 (0.89–1.43)0.331.14 (0.88–1.47)0.31
  > 15 s2.77 (1.41–5.48)0.0032.28 (1.13–4.61)0.0222.44 (1.20–4.94)0.013
  1. aFor chair stand test n = 244. bContinuous variables are scaled by standard deviation
  2. Cox regression models were used for analyses. Model 1: unadjusted. Model 2: adjusted for age, Charlson index. Model 3: adjusted for age, Charlson index, education, smoking, MMSE
  3. EWGSOP European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People [3], EWGSOP2 European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, 2018 update [4], FNIH Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project [9], SMI skeletal muscle mass index, ASMM appendicular skeletal muscle mass, ALMBMI appendicular lean mass/BMI, BMI body mass index, FMtot fat mass (total), FMI fat mass index, HGS hand grip strength, GS gait speed, CS chair stand test, MMSE mini mental state exam
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