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Table 2 Mean NRS pain, body weight, 6MWD, and quadriceps strength at week 0 and week 4, and mean difference between pre- and post-treatment (per-protocol analysis, n = 24)

From: Design of an Underwater Treadmill System for rehabilitation of older obese adults: a pre-post study

ParametersWeek 0
mean ± SD
Week 4
mean ± SD
Mean difference#
(95% CI)
p-value
NRS (0–10)6.4 ± 1.24.1 ± 2.0−2.3 (−3.0, −1.5)< 0.001
Body weight (kg)70.5 ± 9.870.3 ± 9.9−0.2 (−0.8, 0.5)0.697
6MWD (meters)294.4 ± 84.0329.3 ± 73.134.9 (14.1, 55.8)0.002
QS (kg)8.4 ± 3.110.2 ± 3.31.8 (1.1, 2.6)< 0.001
  1. A p-value< 0.05 indicates statistical significance
  2. #Mean difference = week 4 – week 0; using paired t-test
  3. Abbreviations: NRS numerical rating scale, 6MWD 6-min walk distance; QS, quadriceps strength, SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval
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