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Table 3 Main categories, generic categories, and sub-categories of the abuse of hospitalized elders

From: Hospitalized elder abuse in Iran: a qualitative study

Main categoryGeneric categorySub-category
Micro-level issuesPhysical abusePhysical aggression/ Rough care and treatment/ Intentional-unintentional bodily harm
Emotional and psychological abuseVerbal abuse/ Violation of the patient’s dignity/ Discrimination in the provision of health care services/ Psychological violence/ Deprivation and unnecessary restrictions
Meso-level issuesInsufficient professional competenceClinical incompetence/ Inadequate psychological empowerment/ Insufficient professional belonging
Professional negligenceInadequate emotional support/ Insufficient information support/ Caring neglect/ Medical neglect
Insufficient adherence to professional ethicsUnethical behavior/ Irresponsibility/ Inappropriate disclosure of facts/ Using elderly patients as teaching tools
Exo-level issuesUnsanitary environmentUnhygienic conditions/ Failure to adhere to the infection control principles
Unsafe environmentInappropriate physical environment/ Confusing conditions
Macro-level issuesComplex process of admission till dischargeDifficult processes of patient’s admission and transfer/ lengthy waiting time/ lengthy process of patient discharge
Limitations of resourcesInsufficient allocation of human resources/ Inadequate facilities and equipment
Financial abuseFinancial neglect/ Imposing extra costs on patient/ Patient’s treatment to achieve more income