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Table 3 Hazard ratio of mortality related to living alone among the VIP participants

From: Living alone and mortality among older people in Västerbotten County in Sweden: a survey and register-based longitudinal study

VariablesVIP participants aged 50 and 60 recruited during 1990–2006
Men (n = 22,226)
Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
Women (n = 23,390)
Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
Age group
 50 yearsReferenceReference
 60 years1.84 (1.70–1.98)1.66 (1.52–1.82)
Family type and living arrangement
 In partnership with children at homeReferenceReference
 In partnership without children at home1.08 (0.99–1.17)1.04 (0.94–1.15)
 Single parent with children at home1.26 (1.06–1.49)0.95 (0.79–1.14)
 Single with no children at home1.38 (1.26–1.50)1.27 (1.13–1.42)
Employment status
 Fully employedReferenceReference
 Intermittent employment1.29 (1.12–1.49)1.06 (0.88–1.26)
 Mostly unemployed1.36 (1.16–1.61)1.61 (1.22–2.12)
 Fully unemployed1.35 (1.15–1.58)1.12 (0.93–1.35)
 Partly pensioner1.14 (1.01–1.28)1.48 (1.28–1.70)
 Fully pensioner1.58 (1.45–1.72)1.53 (1.39–1.68)
Education level
 High educationReferenceReference
 Middle education1.11 (1.00–1.23)1.11 (0.98–1.24)
 Basic education1.05 (0.94–1.17)1.06 (0.93–1.19)
1st risk factor load
 Low risk load (60% lowest)ReferenceReference
 High risk load (40% highest)1.02 (0.93–1.11)1.01 (0.89–1.15)
2nd risk factor load
 Low risk load (60% lowest)ReferenceReference
 High risk load (40% highest)1.11 (1.03–1.21)1.09 (0.93–1.27)
3rd risk factor load
 Low risk load (60% lowest)ReferenceReference
 High risk load (40% highest)1.08 (1.00–1.17)1.20 (1.08–1.32)
Social participation
 High / medium accessReferenceReference
 Low / No access1.12 (1.04–1.20)1.10 (1.01–1.19)
Informal socializing
 High / medium accessReferenceReference
 Low / No access1.05 (0.95–1.17)1.05 (0.94–1.17)
  1. Only 95% CIs which have significance are bolded.