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Table 3 Multivariate regression for DGI-2013 and components (2014) vs. TICS-m 2014 in the WELL study

From: Diet quality and cognitive function in mid-aged and older men and women

  Total (n = 617) Men (n = 302) Women (n = 315)
  B (95% CI) B (95% CI) B (95% CI)
DGI-2013
 Crude 0.03 (0.01, 0.05)* 0.04 (0.01, 0.08)** − 0.01 (− 0.05, 0.03)
 Adjusted 0.01 (− 0.01, 0.04) 0.03 (0.00, 0.07)* − 0.01 (− 0.04, 0.03)
Dietary variety
 Crude 0.06 (− 0.20, 0.33) 0.09 (− 0.24, 0.42) − 0.09 (− 0.44, 0.27)
 Adjusted 0.02 (− 0.21, 0.24) 0.09 (− 0.17, 0.35) − 0.05 (− 0.36, 0.26)
Vegetable serves
 Crude 0.33 (0.09, 0.57)* 0.23 (− 0.06, 0.52) 0.22 (− 0.15, 0.58)
 Adjusted 0.21 (− 0.01, 0.43) 0.23 (− 0.04, 0.51) 0.21 (− 0.13, 0.55)
Fruit serves
 Crude 0.07 (− 0.15, 0.30) 0.09 (− 0.20, 0.39) − 0.16 (− 0.75, 0.42)
 Adjusted − 0.03 (− 0.28, 0.21) 0.11 (− 0.17, 0.40) − 0.20 (− 0.75, 0.35)
Grain foods serves
 Crude −0.24 (− 0.52, 0.04) 0.21 (− 0.02, 0.44) − 0.58 (− 1.00, − 0.16)**
 Adjusted −0.18 (− 0.46, 0.09) 0.12 (− 0.11, 0.34) n = 305a
− 0.29 (− 0.74, 0.15)
Wholegrain bread
Crude
“I don’t eat bread/white bread” ref ref ref
“high fibre white/multigrain/other” 1.52 (0.53, 2.51)** 1.28 (0.35, 2.22)** 1.69 (− 0.05, 3.43)
“Wholemeal/rye” 1.26 (0.26, 2.27)* 0.47 (− 0.90, 1.83) 2.15 (0.63, 3.66)**
Adjusted
“I don’t eat bread/white bread” n = 605
refa
n = 294
refa
ref
“high fibre white/multigrain/other” 1.32 (0.42, 2.23)* 1.06 (−0.01, 2.12) 1.35 (− 0.36, 3.06)
“Wholemeal/rye” 0.83 (−0.12, 1.79) 0.47 (− 0.75, 1.70) 1.25 (− 0.18, 2.69)
Meat and alternatives serves
 Crude 0.16 (− 0.16, 0.48) 0.11 (−0.26, 0.49) 0.13 (− 0.33, 0.59)
 Adjusted 0.11 (− 0.15, 0.38) 0.12 (− 0.21, 0.46) 0.11 (− 0.27, 0.50)
Dairy serves
 Crude 0.11 (− 0.05, 0.27) 0.29 (0.04, 0.53) − 0.08 (− 0.37, 0.21)
 Adjusted 0.12 (− 0.06, 0.30) 0.24 (− 0.01, 0.48) 0.03 (− 0.32, 0.37)
Fluid serves
 Crude 0.09 (−0.02, 0.20) 0.20 (0.09, 0.31)** −0.06 (− 0.24, 0.12)
 Adjusted 0.05 (−0.06, 0.16) 0.14 (0.01, 0.27)* −0.01 (− 0.20, 0.18)
Discretionary foods serves
 Crude −0.05 (− 0.20, 0.11) 0.02 (− 0.11, 0.15) 0.07 (− 0.24, 0.38)
 Adjusted 0.06 (− 0.10, 0.22) 0.06 (− 0.07, 0.19) 0.07 (− 0.25, 0.38)
Trimming fat from meat
Crude
“Never/rarely” ref ref ref
“Sometimes” 0.48 (−0.87, 1.83) 0.77 (− 0.58, 2.12) − 0.02 (−2.60, 2.55)
“Usually/always/I don’t eat meat” 0.74 (− 0.21, 1.68) 0.25 (− 0.85, 1.36) 0.87 (− 0.31, 2.04)
Adjusted
“Never/rarely” ref ref ref
“Sometimes” 0.77 (−0.60, 2.13) 1.18 (− 0.18, 2.53) − 0.01 (−2.60, 2.58)
“Usually/always/I don’t eat meat” 0.38 (− 0.30, 1.06) 0.28 (− 0.63, 1.19) 0.48 (− 0.71, 1.68)
Type of milk drunk
Crude
“Whole” ref ref ref
“Don’t know/soy” −0.37 (−1.66, 0.92) − 0.76 (−2.54, 1.02) −0.94 (− 2.86, 0.98)
“I don’t drink milk/low fat/skim” 0.52 (− 0.14, 1.18) 0.50 (− 0.39, 1.38) 0.17 (− 0.89, 1.23)
Adjusted
“Whole” ref ref ref
“Don’t know/soy” −0.90 (−2.20, 0.39) − 0.91 (− 2.45, 0.63) −0.99 (− 2.85, 0.87)
“I don’t drink milk/low fat/skim” 0.23 (− 0.46, 0.92) 0.48 (− 0.35, 1.31) −0.03 (− 1.09, 1.03)
Unsaturated fat oils and spreads serves
 Crude 0.21 (−0.16, 0.58) −0.04 (− 0.54, 0.46) 0.61 (0.19, 1.02)**
 Adjusted 0.16 (−0.16, 0.48) − 0.05 (− 0.47, 0.37) n = 314a
0.41 (− 0.02, 0.84)
Salt added after cooking
Crude
“Never” ref ref ref
“Sometimes” −0.03 (− 0.70, 0.65) −0.52 (−1.50, 0.45) 0.44 (− 0.58, 1.47)
“Usually” − 0.17 (− 1.02, 0.68) −0.73 (− 2.21, 0.74) 0.58 (− 0.38, 1.54)
Adjusted
“Never” ref ref ref
“Sometimes” 0.07 (−0.59, 0.73) −0.27 (−1.29, 0.76) 0.41 (− 0.58, 1.40)
“Usually” 0.11 (− 0.79, 1.00) −0.32 (− 1.83, 1.18) 0.54 (− 0.33, 1.41)
Salt added during cooking
Crude
“Never” ref ref ref
“Sometimes” −0.49 (−1.29, 0.32) − 0.88 (− 1.88, 0.13) −0.11 (− 1.24, 1.02)
“Usually” −1.41 (−2.51, − 0.30)* −1.95 (−3.12, − 0.78)** −0.78 (− 2.24, 0.68)
“Don’t know” −1.45 (−4.15, 1.25) −1.03 (− 3.82, 1.76 n/a
Adjusted n = 612 n = 294  
“Never” refa refa ref
“Sometimes” −0.49 (−1.14, 0.16) −0.65 (− 1.48, 0.18) −0.13 (− 1.26, 0.99)
“Usually” −1.12 (−2.04, − 0.19) −1.37 (− 2.39, − 0.35)* −0.47 (− 1.70, 0.76)
“Don’t know” − 0.93 (− 2.98, 1.13) −0.91 (− 3.04, 1.21) n/a
High sugar food serves
 Crude −0.41 (− 0.83, 0.01) −0.22 (− 0.60, 0.16) −0.35 (− 1.55, 0.85)
 Adjusted − 0.18 (− 0.57, 0.21) −0.07 (− 0.44, 0.30) −0.42 (− 1.44, 0.60)
Alcohol serves
 Crude 0.07 (−0.15, 0.29) 0.15 (−0.12, 0.43) 0.42 (− 0.12, 0.96)
 Adjusted n = 613a
0.14 (−0.117, 0.46)
0.20 (− 0.14, 0.54) 0.55 (− 0.11, 1.21)
  1. Adjusted for age (sex – total only) + education + urban/rural + clustering by postcode + total physical activity (T1)
  2. DGI-2013 Dietary Guideline Index, TICS-m Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status
  3. aResults presented with outliers removed, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01