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Table 3 Gender-stratified longitudinal relationship between cognitive measures and anemiaa, CHARLS (Visit 2, 2013y, N = 9324)

From: Association between anemia and cognitive decline among Chinese middle-aged and elderly: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study

Outcome variableAnalytic ModelAllbMaleFemale
β (95%CI)p-valueβ (95%CI)p-valueβ (95%CI)p-value
Global CognitionModel1−0.62(−0.87, −0.38)< 0.001−0.92(− 1.29, − 0.55)< 0.001−0.50(− 0.84, − 0.17)0.003
Model2− 0.39(− 0.61, − 0.18)< 0.001−0.59(− 0.92, − 0.25)0.001−0.30(− 0.58, − 0.02)0.039
Model3− 0.24(− 0.43, − 0.04)0.019−0.50(− 0.81, − 0.19)0.002−0.09(− 0.35, 0.17)0.496
Episodic MemoryModel1−0.25(− 0.35, − 0.15)< 0.001−0.27(− 0.43, − 0.11)0.001−0.23(− 0.36, − 0.10)0.001
Model2− 0.19(− 0.28, − 0.09)< 0.001−0.19(− 0.34, − 0.04)0.013−0.18(− 0.31, − 0.06)0.003
Model3− 0.16(− 0.26, − 0.07)0.001−0.18(− 0.33, − 0.03)0.017−0.15(− 0.27, − 0.03)0.016
TICSModel1− 0.26(− 0.44, − 0.08)0.004−0.45(− 0.71, − 0.18)0.001−0.21(− 0.45, 0.04)0.099
Model2−0.13(− 0.29, 0.03)0.117− 0.26(− 0.51, − 0.01)0.039−0.07(− 0.27, 0.14)0.542
Model3−0.04(− 0.19, 0.11)0.634− 0.23(− 0.47, 0.01)0.0530.08(− 0.12, 0.27)0.444
  1. BMI Body mass index, MCV Mean corpuscular volume, eGFR Estimated glomerular function rate, CI Confidence interval, TICS Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status
  2. Notes:a Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentrations lower than 13 g/dl for men and lower than 12 g/dl for women; All analytical models were conducted with the Cognitive Test Scores of Visit 2 as the outcome and the dichotomous anemia as the independent variable;
  3. bWhen analyzed for the whole sample, gender and was included as covariate for model 1 to model 3;
  4. Model 1 adjusted for age and baseline hemoglobin concentration;
  5. Model 2 adjusted for age, education level, marital status, BMI, cigarette smoking status, alcohol consumption, C reactive protein, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and baseline hemoglobin concentration;
  6. Model 3 adjusted for age, education level, marital status, BMI, cigarette smoking status, alcohol consumption, C reactive protein, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, chronic pain, associated comorbidities (cancer, kidney, stroke, heart, lung, hypertension, diabetes), MCV, eGFR, and baseline hemoglobin concentration;
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