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Table 2 Gender-stratified relationship of baseline cognitive measures with anemiaa and hemoglobin, CHARLS (Visit 1, 2011-2012y, N = 10,918)

From: Association between anemia and cognitive decline among Chinese middle-aged and elderly: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study

Outcome variableAnalytic ModelAlldMaleFemale
β (95%CI)p-valueβ (95%CI)p-valueβ (95%CI)p-value
Anemiab
 Global CognitionModel1− 0.65(− 0.87, − 0.42)< 0.001− 0.63(− 0.96, − 0.30)0.003− 0.73(− 1.03, − 0.42)< 0.001
Model2− 0.45(− 0.64, − 0.25)< 0.001− 0.33(− 0.64, − 0.03)0.030− 0.55(− 0.81, − 0.29)< 0.001
Model3−0.49(− 0.69, − 0.29)< 0.001− 0.40(− 0.71, − 0.10)0.010− 0.56(− 0.82, − 0.29)< 0.001
 Episodic MemoryModel1− 0.20(− 0.29, − 0.11)< 0.001− 0.21(− 0.35, − 0.08)0.002− 0.19(− 0.31, − 0.07)0.002
Model2− 0.14(− 0.23, − 0.06)0.001− 0.14(− 0.27, − 0.01)0.033− 0.15(− 0.26, − 0.03)0.012
Model3− 0.14(− 0.23, − 0.05)0.002−0.14(− 0.28, − 0.01)0.037−0.14(− 0.25, − 0.02)0.023
 TICSModel1−0.28(− 0.44, − 0.11)0.001−0.22(− 0.47, 0.02)0.076−0.37(− 0.59, − 0.15)0.001
Model2−0.16(− 0.30, − 0.02)0.028−0.03(− 0.25, 0.19)0.787−0.26(− 0.45, − 0.07)0.007
Model3−0.23(− 0.38, − 0.08)0.002−0.11(− 0.33, 0.12)0.360−0.33(− 0.52, − 0.13)0.001
Hemoglobin Concentration (g/dL)c
 Global CognitionModel10.038(0.002, 0.074)0.0390.08(0.03, 0.13)0.0010.02(−0.04, 0.07)0.545
Model20.037(0.005, 0.069)0.0220.04(−0.01, 0.09)0.0800.04(−0.01, 0.09)0.060
Model30.042(0.011, 0.074)0.0110.05(0.01, 0.10)0.0360.04(−0.01, 0.09)0.068
 Episodic MemoryModel10.012(−0.002, 0.026)0.0830.02(−0.01, 0.04)0.0590.01(− 0.01, 0.03)0.482
Model20.012(−0.002, 0.026)0.0820.01(−0.01, 0.03)0.2620.01(− 0.01, 0.03)0.146
Model30.012(−0.002, 0.026)0.0870.01(−0.01, 0.03)0.2690.01(− 0.01, 0.03)0.182
 TICSModel1−0.004(− 0.030, 0.023)0.7880.03(− 0.01, 0.07)0.077−0.02(− 0.06, 0.01)0.211
Model20.001(− 0.022, 0.025)0.9080.01(− 0.03, 0.04)0.622−0.01(− 0.03, 0.03)0.924
Model30.008(− 0.016, 0.031)0.5170.02(− 0.02, 0.05)0.3250.01(− 0.03, 0.04)0.862
  1. BMI Body mass index, MCV Mean corpuscular volume, eGFR Estimated glomerular function rate, CI Confidence interval, TICS Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status.
  2. Notes:a Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentrations lower than 13g/dl for men and lower than 12g/dl for women;
  3. bThe dichotomous anemia being the independent variable;
  4. cThe continuous hemoglobin concentration (g/dL) being the independent variable;
  5. dWhen analyzed for the whole sample, gender was included as covariate for model 1 to model 3;
  6. Model 1 adjusted for age;
  7. Model 2 adjusted for age, education level, marital status, BMI, cigarette smoking status, alcohol consumption, C reactive protein, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol;
  8. Model 3 adjusted for age, education level, marital status, BMI, cigarette smoking status, alcohol consumption, C reactive protein, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, chronic pain, MCV, eGFR and associated comorbidities (cancer, kidney, stroke, heart, lung, hypertension, diabetes );
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