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Table 1 Baseline participant characteristics by anemia statusa, CHARLS (Visit 1, 2011-2012y, N = 10,918)

From: Association between anemia and cognitive decline among Chinese middle-aged and elderly: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study

VariableTotal (N = 10,918)Non-anemia (N = 9513)Anemia (N = 1404)p-valueb
Age (years), mean (SD)59.13 (9.66)58.81 (9.36)61.31 (11.26)< 0.0001
Male, %(n)45.79 (4999)46.72 (4444)39.53 (555)< 0.0001
Hemoglobin (g/dL), mean (SD)14.37 (2.20)14.82 (1.93)11.27 (1.24)< 0.0001
Alcohol consumption, %(n)0.0026
 Never30.67 (3349)31.13 (2961)27.64 (388) 
 Occasional7.72 (843)7.83 (745)6.98 (98) 
 Current61.60 (6726)61.04 (5807)65.38 (918) 
Smoking status, %(n)< 0.0001
 Never61.01 (6661)60.20 (5727)66.45 (933) 
 Occasional9.13 (997)9.19 (874)8.76 (123) 
 Current29.86 (3260)30.61 (2912)24.79 (348) 
Marital status, %(n)0.0643
 Married88.64 (9678)88.84 (8451)87.32 (1226) 
 Divorced0.64 (70)0.69 (66)0.28 (4) 
 Widowed9.99 (1091)9.74 (927)11.68 (164) 
 Single0.72 (79)0.73 (69)0.71 (10) 
Education, %(n)< 0.0001
 Illiterate28.60 (3132)27.83 (2647)34.54 (485) 
 Elementary school40.91 (4467)40.65 (3867)42.66 (599) 
 Middle school19.88 (2171)20.47 (1947)15.95 (224) 
 High school10.01 (1093)10.56 (1005)6.27 (88) 
 Graduate or above0.50 (55)0.49 (47)0.57 (8) 
BMI degree, %(n)< 0.0001
 Underweight5.93 (552)5.28 (426)10.29 (126) 
 Normal weight53.04 (4933)52.36 (4228)57.55 (705) 
 Overweight30.05 (2795)30.89 (2494)24.49 (300) 
 Obesity10.98 (1021)11.48 (927)7.67 (94) 
CES-D 10, mean (SD)8.61 (6.42)8.53 (6.39)9.20 (6.56)0.0003
Hypertension, %(n)4.53 (495)4.76 (453)2.99 (42)0.0029
Diabetes, %(n)15.18 (1657)15.18 (1444)15.17 (213)0.9936
Abdominal Adiposity, %(n)45.46 (4963)46.16 (4391)40.74 (572)< 0.0001
Suffering chronic pain, %(n)25.95 (2829)25.69 (2441)27.62 (387)0.1242
Dyslipidemia,%(n)44.09 (4814)45.29 (4308)36.04 (506)< 0.0001
Hs-CRP (mg/l),median (IQR)1.06 (0.55~2.27)1.07 (0.58~2.26)0.94 (0.51~2.43)0.6475
Mean corpuscular volume, mean (SD)90.56 (8.58)91.22 (7.76)86.11 (11.93)< 0.0001
Hdl Cholesterol (mg/dl), mean (SD)50.93 (15.16)50.72 (15.07)52.33 (15.68)< 0.0001
eGFR, mean (SD)92.54 (23.51)92.61 (22.88)92.11 (27.38)0.3577
  1. Hs-CRP High-sensitivity of C-reactive protein, eGFR Estimated glomerular function rate, CES-D 10 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score
  2. Notes: a Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentrations lower than 13 g/dl for men and lower than 12 g/dl for women;
  3. bcompared between anemia and non-anemia group
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