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Table 1 Participant characteristics stratified by Y10 follow-up status and dementia outcome

From: Anticholinergic and benzodiazepine medication use and risk of incident dementia: a UK cohort study

Characteristic Dementia at Y10 (n = 220) No dementia at Y10 (n = 2825) Lost to follow up between Y2 and Y10 (n = 1990) Died between Y2 and Y10 (n = 3136)
Female 163 (77.3) 1675 (61.2) 1315 (66.1) 1630 (52.0)
Mean age (SD) 77.1 (7.0) 72.0 (10.0) 73.8 (6.1) 76.9 (6.7)
Educated for ≥ 10 years 68 (29.3) 1311 (43.9) 754 (37.9) 1127 (35.9)
Manual occupation 132 (61.7) 1359 (50.1) 1088 (54.7) 1751 (55.8)
CFAS assessment arm 84 (51.0) 594 (27.4) 814 (40.9) 999 (31.9)
Y2 MMSE
  ≤ 21 30 (22.6) 57 (3.5) 190 (9.6) 381 (12.2)
 22–25 76 (38.4) 432 (20.0) 552 (27.7) 845 (27)
 26–30 114 (39.0) 2336 (76.5) 1196 (60.1) 1847 (58.9)
Decline in MMSE between Y0 and Y2
 No decline / improvement 100 (41.1) 1592 (55.0) 988 (49.6) 1444 (46.0)
 1 point 34 (13.1) 529 (17.6) 302 (15.2) 487 (15.5)
 2 points 34 (13.6) 350 (11.8) 220 (11.1) 364 (11.6)
  ≥ 3 points 50 (29.0) 326 (14.2) 402 (20.2) 729 (23.2)
Disability
 None 121 (47.1) 2336 (80.0) 1386 (69.6) 1562 (49.8)
 IADL impairment 65 (30.2) 350 (13.1) 331 (16.6) 672 (21.4)
 ADL impairment / unclassified 34 (22.7) 139 (7.0) 273 (13.7) 902 (28.8)
 Self-reported memory decline (Y0 to Y2) 110 (48.7) 774 (27.4) 592 (29.7) 1152 (36.7)
 Fair/poor self-reported health 66 (31.7) 529 (21.2) 523 (26.3) 1174 (37.4)
Comorbiditya
 Sleep disturbance 56 (26.5) 606 (22.6) 507 (25.5) 902 (28.8)
 Diagnosed depression 22 (11.0) 309 (11.3) 216 (10.9) 290 (9.2)
 Consulted GP for depression 31 (15.8) 388 (14.4) 282 (14.2) 387 (12.3)
 Consulted GP for anxiety 28 (11.8) 242 (8.5) 186 (9.3) 228 (7.3)
BZD useb
 None 195 (86.6) 2623 (91.7) 1763 (88.6) 2726 (86.9)
 Any e 25 (13.5) 202 (8.3) 222 (11.2) 391 (12.5)
 New f 5 (2.2) 43 (1.9) 49 (2.5) 92 (2.9)
 Discontinuing g 6 (3.2) 51 (2.0) 57 (2.9) 95 (3.0)
 Recurrent h 14 (8.1) 108 (4.4) 116 (5.8) 204 (6.5)
ACB3 usec
 None 198 (89.8) 2677 (94.1) 1842 (92.6) 2831 (90.3)
 Any e 22 (10.2) 148 (5.9) 143 (7.2) 286 (9.1)
 New f 5 (1.8) 55 (2.2) 58 (2.9) 112 (3.6)
 Discontinuing g 5 (3.6) 35 (1.5) 43 (2.2) 78 (2.5)
 Recurrent h 12 (4.9) 58 (2.2) 42 (2.1) 96 (3.1)
ACB12 used
 None 85 (41.0) 1353 (47.3) 908 (45.6) 972 (31)
 Any e 135 (59.0) 1472 (52.7) 1077 (54.1) 2145 (68.4)
 New f 34 (16.0) 321 (11.4) 210 (10.6) 419 (13.4)
 Discontinuing g 11 (4.5) 209 (7.9) 175 (8.8) 327 (10.4)
 Recurrent h 90 (38.5) 942 (33.5) 692 (34.8) 1399 (44.6)
  1. Number of participants (percentages) given unless specified otherwise. Percentages of participants at Y10 are weighted for attrition due to non-response at Y10 and loss of contact between Y2 and Y10
  2. Abbreviations: CFAS Cognitive Function and Ageing Study, SD standard deviation, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, ADL Activities of Daily Living, GP General Practitioner
  3. aAny record of specific comorbidity at the Y0 or Y2 assessment
  4. bUse of benzodiazepines or Z-drugs
  5. cUse of drugs scoring 3 on the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden scale
  6. dUse of drugs scoring 1 or 2 on the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden scale
  7. e-hDrug use categories are
  8. None: no use at Y0 or Y2;
  9. Any: Use at Y0 or Y2;
  10. New: Use at Y2 but not Y0
  11. Discontinuing: Use at Y0 but not Y2
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