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Table 3 Baseline and follow-up assessment results of participants

From: Effects of individualized Tai-Chi on balance and lower-limb strength in older adults

Individualized Tai-Chi Group (n = 20) Traditional Tai-Chi Group (n = 15) Control Group (n = 15)
  Baseline Follow-up p value Baseline Follow-up p value Baseline Follow up p value
Functional Balance
 BBS 45.05 ± 12.17 48.00 ± 11.35 0.000* 49.33 ± 4.52 51.33 ± 4.79 0.000* 45.13 ± 12.35 45.87 ± 12.36 0.098
 TUG 12.00 ± 8.45 10.10 ± 7.65 0.000* 9.10 ± 1.94 8.33 ± 1.71 0.050 11.24 ± 9.59 10.52 ± 8.86 0.075
 FRD 24.30 ± 7.40 26.24 ± 6.82 0.005* 23.75 ± 6.47 25.52 ± 4.11 0.299 21.66 ± 7.01 22.03 ± 6.65 0.728
Muscle Strength
 RH F 14.55 ± 3.71 17.71 ± 3.84 0.002* 16.39 ± 4.32 18.88 ± 3.25 0.011* 13.64 ± 5.87 14.48 ± 4.57 0.340
 LH F 14.47 ± 3.32 16.98 ± 3.86 0.005* 15.29 ± 4.72 17.90 ± 3.75 0.010* 13.09 ± 5.00 13.89 ± 4.45 0.393
 RH E 13.64 ± 4.91 17.31 ± 5.60 0.000* 16.06 ± 3.33 18.10 ± 3.85 0.026* 12.67 ± 5.37 14.65 ± 5.00 0.033*
 LH E 14.36 ± 5.49 16.98 ± 3.86 0.001* 15.71 ± 3.46 17.90 ± 3.75 0.083 12.57 ± 4.58 13.89 ± 4.45 0.128
 RH Ab 12.67 ± 3.66 15.52 ± 4.72 0.004* 15.51 ± 3.73 16.94 ± 2.54 0.112 12.04 ± 2.65 13.09 ± 2.77 0.088
 LH Ab 12.57 ± 3.20 14.90 ± 4.21 0.007* 12.26 ± 2.07 16.00 ± 2.87 0.000* 12.31 ± 3.08 12.01 ± 2.54 0.623
 RH Ad 10.23 ± 2.86 13.06 ± 4.20 0.002* 11.07 ± 2.09 12.92 ± 2.99 0.033* 9.38 ± 3.02 9.61 ± 3.21 0.638
 LH Ad 9.67 ± 2.63 12.58 ± 3.59 0.000* 11.88 ± 2.91 13.53 ± 2.68 0.054 9.74 ± 3.12 10.20 ± 2.36 0.308
 RK F 11.20 ± 2.83 13.86 ± 3.87 0.000* 13.13 ± 2.84 14.52 ± 2.70 0.096 10.09 ± 3.31 10.61 ± 2.73 0.367
 LK F 10.64 ± 2.92 13.53 ± 4.59 0.001* 12.81 ± 2.69 14.15 ± 2.94 0.090 10.16 ± 3.99 10.73 ± 2.85 0.435
 RK E 15.93 ± 4.89 20.47 ± 5.81 0.000* 18.06 ± 3.92 19.06 ± 4.40 0.220 15.15 ± 6.48 15.24 ± 4.77 0.936
 LK E 15.58 ± 5.46 18.19 ± 6.11 0.007* 16.91 ± 3.08 18.21 ± 3.66 0.154 13.95 ± 5.06 14.20 ± 3.82 0.793
 RA Df 11.10 ± 2.85 13.88 ± 3.43 0.001* 11.87 ± 3.01 14.00 ± 2.80 0.010* 10.57 ± 2.80 11.81 ± 2.69 0.140
 LA Df 11.32 ± 2.65 14.26 ± 3.40 0.000* 12.01 ± 2.81 14.47 ± 3.18 0.003* 10.85 ± 2.43 11.52 ± 2.78 0.263
 RA Pf 15.41 ± 3.71 20.46 ± 6.74 0.000* 17.12 ± 2.46 19.09 ± 3.66 0.068 16.06 ± 5.10 17.09 ± 4.64 0.280
 LA Pf 14.88 ± 3.96 20.27 ± 6.53 0.000* 16.53 ± 2.90 17.44 ± 3.90 0.220 15.51 ± 4.85 15.57 ± 4.61 0.936
  1. Abbreviations: BBS Berg Balance Scale, TUG Timed up-and-go, FRD Forward reach distance, RH Righ hip, F Flexor, LH Left hip, E Extensor, Ab Abductor, Ad Adductor, RK Right knee, LK Left knee, RA Right ankle, Df Dorsi-flexor, LA Left ankle, Pf Plantar-flexor
  2. *p < 0.05