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Table 3 Published Literature on the Burden of Pneumonia in Long-term Care Facilities

From: The burden of respiratory infections among older adults in long-term care: a systematic review

Author, Publication Year Study Design Country Study Dates Type of study Age, Mean (SD)*, in years n Infected / N at Risk† Estimate of Occurrence
Cartter et al., 1990 [33] Retrospective Cohort United States December 1, 1984 to April 10, 1985 Outbreak Median: Nursing Home A: 84 Nursing Home C: 85 Nursing Home A: 3 / 16 Nursing Home C: 25 / 126 Nursing Home A Incidence Proportion: 18.8% Nursing Home C Incidence Proportion: 19.8%
Langmore et al., 2002 [41] Cross-sectional United States 1993–1994 Non-outbreak Age ≥ 85, 49.4%; Age 65 to 84, 51.6% 3118 / 102,755 Prevalence: 3.0%
Konetzka et al., 2004 [34] Retrospective Cohort United States 1996 Non-outbreak 83.5 (7.4) 766 / 5899 Prevalence Proportion: 13.0%
Quagliarello et al., 2005 [21] Prospective Cohort United States February 2001 to March 2003 Non-outbreak 84.7 (8) 112 / 613 Incidence Proportion: 18.3%
Won et al., 2006 [35] Retrospective Cohort United States June 1998 to December 2000 Non-outbreak 83.4‡ 75 / 3547 Prevalence Proportion: 2.1%
Givens et al., 2010 [22] Prospective Cohort United States 2003 to 2009 Non-outbreak 86 (7.0) 133 / 323 Incidence Proportion: 41.2%
Aparasu et al., 2013 [36] Retrospective Cohort United States July 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003 Non-outbreak 83.5 (8.1) Atypical Antipsychotic‡: 295 / 3609 Typical Antipsychotic‡: 188 / 3609 Atypical Antipsychotic Incidence Proportion: 8.17%; Atypical Antipsychotic Incidence Rate‡: 4.61 cases per person-year; Typical Antipsychotic Incidence Proportion: 5.21%; Typical Antipsychotic Incidence Rate‡: 5.21 cases per person-year
Huybrechts et al., 2011 [32] Retrospective Cohort Canada January 1, 1996 to March 31, 2006 Non-outbreak 83.8 (6.9)§ Prevalence: 920 / 10,900; Incidence: 265 events / 2890 person-years Prevalence Proportion: 8.4%; Incidence Rate: 9.17 per 100 person-years
Sund-Levander et al., 2007 [23] Prospective Cohort Sweden 2000–2003 Non-outbreak 84.6 (6.7)|| 44 / 234 Incidence Proportion: 28.9%
te Wierik et al., 2012 [24] Prospective Cohort Netherlands January to March 15, 2010 Outbreak 90.1 (1.1) 9 / 140 Incidence Proportion: 6.4%**
Rummukainen et al., 2013 [43] Cross-sectional Finland 2011 Non-outbreak Age > 85, 49%** 75 / 5262 Prevalence Proportion: 1.4%
Sarabia-Cobo et al., 2016 [25] Prospective Cohort Spain 2011–2013 Non-outbreak 88.7 (6.8) 1330 / 2384 Prevalence Proportion: 55.8%
Fukushima et al., 2008 [26] Prospective Cohort Japan December 1, 2003 to March 28, 2004 Non-outbreak 85 17 / 284 Incidence Proportion: 6.0%
Wu et al., 2010 [40] Randomized Controlled Trial Taiwan 2004 Non-outbreak 82.3 (8.3) No data / 74 Traditional Model Incidence Rate: 0.17 cases per 1000 bed-days; Integrated Care Model Incidence Rate: 0.07 cases per 1000 bed-days††
Doi et al., 2014 [37] Retrospective Cohort Japan Winter 2014 Outbreak 81.5 (8.5) 5 / 99 Prevalence Proportion: 5.1%
Kikutani et al., 2015 [27] Prospective Cohort Japan No data Non-outbreak 86.7 (7.8) 33 / 691 Incidence Proportion: 4.8%
  1. *If available and unless another measure is specified
  2. †The estimates and study participants’ characteristics were calculated among unvaccinated individuals whenever both vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals were included in the study samples
  3. ‡Rates were only provided by atypical versus typical antipsychotic exposure status
  4. §Calculated by combining individual groups’ data using methods recommended by the Cochrane Collaborative
  5. §Calculated from 1-year follow-up
  6. ||Measured during the initial 5 weeks of the study period
  7. **Age derived only from the nursing home residents
  8. ††Rates were only provided for each arm of the trial