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Table 3 Food environmental characteristics of single older adults according to food security status

From: Objective and perceived food environment and household economic resources related to food insecurity in older adults living alone in rural areas

Variables Total Food secure household Food insecure household t or chi-square
Household food availability
 Purchasing food 82.4(140) 82.0(91) 83.1(49) 0.03
 Farming or home gardening 20.0(34) 24.3(27) 11.9(7) 3.74
 Private food assistance 18.8(32) 19.8(22) 17.0(10) 0.21
 Public food assistance program 52.4(89) 45.1(50) 66.1(39) 6.85**
Household food accessibility
 Having intangible support for food purchasing from family 8.8(15) 12.6(14) 1.7(1) 5.98
 Having intangible support for food purchasing from neighbors 6.5(11) 4.5(5) 10.2(6) 2.04
Community food availability, objective indices
 Places to purchase food
  Traditional market 35.3(60) 34.2(38) 37.3(22) 0.16
  Super market 13.5(23) 11.7(13) 17.0(10) 0.90
  Super supermarket 45.3(77) 48.7(54) 39.0(23) 2.02
Community food availability, perceptiona
 No various foods in the nearest food store 8.2(14) 5.4(6) 13.6(8) 3.40
Community food accessibility, objective indices
 Transportation to the nearest food storesb     0.59
  By walk 43.5(74) 41.4(46) 47.5(28)  
  By driving 38.8(66) 40.5(45) 35.6(21)  
 Distance to the nearest food stores (min)
  By walkc 17.1±12.3 15.9±13.8 19.1±9.0 1.21
  By drivingc 20.7±9.1 21.7±8.5 18.6±10.1 1.67
Community food accessibility, perceptiona
 Having difficulties in food purchasing due to food stores far from home 25.9(44) 16.2(18) 44.1(26) 16.46***
 Having difficulties in food purchasing due to bus stop far from home 15.9(27) 18.9(21) 10.2(6) 2.44
 Having difficulties in food purchasing due to inconvenience bus route 11.8(20) 16.2(18) 3.4(2) 6.47*
  1. Values are mean ± SD for continuous variables or % (n) for categorical variables
  2. * significantly different between food secure and insecure household (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001)
  3. a Responses were “yes”, “no”, or “not applicable (non-purchasing of foods)”
  4. b Responses were “by walk”, “by driving”, or “not applicable”
  5. c Responses among the participants who used the transportation to the nearest food store