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Table 2 Economic characteristics of single older adults according to food security status

From: Objective and perceived food environment and household economic resources related to food insecurity in older adults living alone in rural areas

Variables Total Food secure household Food insecure household t or chi-square
Objective economic indices
 Average monthly income for last 1 year, $ a 275.5±149.9 280.9±156.6 265.3±137.2 0.42
  Earnings 44.7±100.5 53.1±111.9 28.9±72.8 2.24
  Subsidies 189.6±139.9 182.6±141.9 202.9±136.4 0.81
  Allowances from family 41.2±88.1 45.2±94.1 33.4±75.6 0.69
 Average monthly expenditure for last 1 year, $ 157.8±101.2 153.7±100.8 165.6±102.2 0.54
  Food expenses 36.0±41.3 37.5±44.1 33.2±35.5 0.41
  Housing fee 43.5±71.7 31.3±64.4 66.4±79.3 9.75**
  Heating costs 53.0±36.3 54.0±36.8 51.2±35.6 0.22
  Medical expenses 25.3±42.9 30.9±48.1 14.7±28.6 5.61*
 % Proportions of expenditure components, all year
  Food expenditure 22.9±19.5 24.8±20.6 19.3±16.7 3.05
  Housing fee 19.4±29.7 14.1±26.1 29.4±33.4 10.8**
  Heating costs 41.9±26.5 42.9±25.4 40.1±28.8 0.42
  Medical expenditure 15.3±21.5 18.3±22.4 9.5±18.4 6.63*
Perceived economic indices
 Reduced food expenses due to burden of housing fee 21.8(37) 15.3(17) 33.9(20) 7.82**
 Reduced food expenses due to burden of heating costs 51.8(88) 44.1(49) 66.1(39) 7.44**
  1. Values are mean ± SD for continuous variables or % (n) for categorical variables
  2. * significantly different between food secure and insecure households (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01)
  3. a The exchange rate of currency was 1125 Korean won per 1 US dollar