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Table 3 Odds ratios for prefrailty and frailty in both men and women

From: Sex-related differences in the association between frailty and dietary consumption in Japanese older people: a cross-sectional study

  Prefrailty Frailty
  3–6 times/week Less than twice/week 3–6 times/week Less than twice/week
  OR (95%CI) p-value OR (95%CI) p-value OR (95%CI) p-value OR (95%CI) p-value
Men
 Fish 1.13 (0.58–2.19) 0.727 0.91 (0.38–2.19) 0.839 0.66 (0.28–1.58) 0.352 1.94 (0.83–4.56) 0.127
 Meat 2.01 (0.90–4.45) 0.087 2.06 (0.93–4.57) 0.075 1.89 (0.76–4.69) 0.172 2.76 (1.12–6.77) 0.027*
 Eggs 1.63 (0.75–3.55) 0.221 1.61 (0.79–3.28) 0.189 1.15 (0.50–2.62) 0.744 0.89 (0.42–1.90) 0.772
 Dairy products 0.12 (0.02–0.91) 0.040* 0.99 (0.55–1.79) 0.980 1.56 (0.56–4.33) 0.397 1.56 (0.79–3.11) 0.204
 Soybeans products 0.87 (0.42–1.81) 0.717 0.89 (0.45–1.78) 0.748 1.20 (0.55–2.60) 0.650 1.03 (0.46–2.30) 0.937
 Vegetables 1.28 (0.62–2.62) 0.503 1.32 (0.58–3.00) 0.501 0.97 (0.41–2.28) 0.946 1.85 (0.77–4.42) 0.168
 Seaweeds 1.37 (0.64–2.96) 0.420 1.79 (0.88–3.67) 0.110 1.71 (0.72–4.09) 0.227 2.13 (0.94–4.82) 0.070
 Potatoes 1.78 (0.80–3.94) 0.155 1.68 (0.77–3.67) 0.191 1.67 (0.71–3.96) 0.243 1.59 (0.68–3.72) 0.284
 Fruits 0.82 (0.38–1.79) 0.624 1.33 (0.69–2.59) 0.395 1.16 (0.50–2.68) 0.722 1.75 (0.81–3.76) 0.154
 Fat or oil 1.67 (0.69–4.03) 0.251 2.59 (1.14–5.88) 0.022* 0.87 (0.36–2.14) 0.766 1.56 (0.69–3.53) 0.281
 Snacks 0.90 (0.46–1.78) 0.770 0.98 (0.48–2.00) 0.951 0.50 (0.22–1.14) 0.099 1.19 (0.56–2.56) 0.648
 Salty foods 2.24 (0.53–9.45) 0.273 2.81 (0.81–9.74) 0.104 0.64 (0.20–2.06) 0.460 0.49 (0.19–1.26) 0.138
 Alcohol 1.70 (0.65–4.47) 0.282 1.54 (0.81–2.93) 0.185 0.87 (0.22–3.41) 0.843 1.58 (0.77–3.23) 0.211
Women
 Fish 1.08 (0.62–1.90) 0.785 2.12 (1.11–4.05) 0.023* 1.51 (0.73–3.09) 0.264 2.45 (1.02–5.89) 0.045*
 Meat 1.30 (0.70–2.42) 0.411 2.22 (1.18–4.18) 0.013* 2.21 (0.93–5.26) 0.073 4.05 (1.67–9.86) 0.002*
 Eggs 1.73 (0.87–3.46) 0.118 1.70 (0.9–3.22) 0.101 0.59 (0.25–1.39) 0.225 0.89 (0.42–1.86) 0.747
 Dairy products 0.69 (0.32–1.48) 0.341 1.06 (0.62–1.79) 0.839 1.02 (0.38–2.75) 0.968 1.76 (0.88–3.51) 0.111
 Soybean products 1.39 (0.77–2.53) 0.274 1.63 (0.89–2.98) 0.114 2.03 (0.96–4.27) 0.062 1.59 (0.70–3.64) 0.270
Vegetables 1.86 (0.96–3.59) 0.064 2.14 (1.05–4.37) 0.036* 3.88 (1.69–8.87) 0.001* 5.03 (2.13–11.92) < 0.001*
 Seaweeds 1.39 (0.76–2.53) 0.290 2.17 (1.19–3.95) 0.011* 0.73 (0.33–1.62) 0.443 1.46 (0.68–3.11) 0.328
 Potatoes 1.35 (0.72–2.54) 0.353 1.96 (1.03–3.74) 0.040* 1.45 (0.60–3.49) 0.405 3.84 (1.63–9.05) 0.002*
 Fruits 0.97 (0.54–1.76) 0.926 1.44 (0.78–2.66) 0.243 1.54 (0.73–3.23) 0.258 1.31 (0.53–3.21) 0.560
 Fat or oil 1.17 (0.62–2.23) 0.629 1.82 (1.00–3.3) 0.050 1.30 (0.60–2.83) 0.503 1.00 (0.45–2.22) 0.991
 Snacks 0.77 (0.41–1.43) 0.401 0.90 (0.51–1.61) 0.726 1.38 (0.61–3.15) 0.443 2.16 (1.02–4.56) 0.043*
 Salty foods 2.13 (0.63–7.22) 0.224 1.31 (0.55–3.12) 0.538 1.02 (0.19–5.34) 0.982 0.91 (0.32–2.54) 0.850
 Alcohol 0.45 (0.07–2.94) 0.408 0.93 (0.32–2.65) 0.887 1.43 (0.16–12.41) 0.747 1.21 (0.29–5.13) 0.794
  1. OR: Odds ratios, Multinomial regression analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index and family arrangement. *p < 0.05
  2. OR indicate the tendency of participants who consume foods at a frequency of 3–6 times/week and less than twice/week to have prefrailty and frailty compared with those who consume these foods daily