Skip to main content

Table 2 Prevalence, incidence and persistence of depressive symptoms (CSDD-items) by the presence of dementia at baseline

From: The course of depressive symptoms with decline in cognitive function - a longitudinal study of older adults receiving in-home care at baseline

CSDD items Prevalence
T1 T2 T3
All nD / D All nD / D All nD / D
n/N (%) n (%) / n (%) n/N (%) n (%) / n (%) n/N (%) n (%) / n (%)
Anxiety 339/945 (35.9) 169 (30.3) / 170 (43.8)*** 184/507 (36.3) 92 (30.4) / 92 (45.1)** 137/409 (33.5) 76 (28.5) / 61 (43.0)*
Sadness 273/951 (28.7) 124 (22.2) / 149 (37.9)*** 134/509 (26.3) 66 (21.6) / 68 (33.5)* 99/409 (24.2) 62 (23.2) / 37 (26.1)
Lack of Joy 149/951 (15.7) 52 (9.3) / 97 (24.7)*** 87/509 (17.1) 33 (10.8) / 54 (26.5)*** 66/411 (16.1) 38 (14.2) / 28 (19.6)
Irritability 244/949 (25.7) 107 (19.2) / 137 (34.9)*** 149/510 (29.2) 57 (18.6) / 92 (45.3)*** 104/411 (25.3) 64 (23.9) / 40 (28.0)
Agitation 55/954 (5.8) 20 (3.6) / 35 (8.9)** 27/510 (5.3) 7 (2.3) / 20 (9.9)*** 19/413 (4.6) 12 (4.4) / 7 (4.9)
Retardation 160/949 (16.9) 50 (8.9) / 110 (28.4)*** 82/509 (16.1) 30 (9.8) / 52 (25.7)*** 64/412 (15.5) 29 (10.8) / 35 (24.3)***
Multiple physical complaints 333/947 (35.2) 197 (35.2) / 136 (35.1) 190/506 (37.5) 110 (36.1) / 80 (39.8) 122/410 (29.8) 78 (29.2) / 44 (30.8)
Lack of interest 164/948 (17.3) 52 (9.3) / 112 (28.8)*** 82/507 (16.2) 33 (10.8) / 49 (24.4)*** 55/407 (13.5) 26 (9.8) / 29 (20.6)**
Appetite loss 215/952 (22.6) 91 (16.3) / 124 (31.6)*** 88/507 (17.4) 45 (14.8) / 43 (21.2) 64/412 (15.5) 43 (16.0) / 21 (14.7)
Weight loss 146/941 (15.5) 65 (11.7) / 81 (21.0)*** 53/500 (10.6) 31 (10.2) / 22 (11.2) 43/408 (10.5) 30 (11.3) / 13 (9.1)
Lack of energy 265/948 (28.0) 125 (22.3) / 140 (36.2)*** 107/508 (21.1) 54 (17.6) / 53 (26.2)* 84/408 (20.6) 54 (20.2) / 30 (21.3)
Diurnal variation 85/918 (9.3) 37 (6.9) / 48 (12.7)** 72/487 (14.8) 30 (10.3) / 42 (21.3)** 44/397 (11.1) 23 (9.0) / 21 (14.8)
Difficulty falling asleep 171/922 (18.5) 101 (18.7) / 70 (18.4) 63/492 (12.8) 41 (13.8) / 22 (11.3) 62/395 (15.7) 42 (16.3) / 20 (14.5)
Multiple awakening 225/882 (25.5) 122 (23.3) / 103 (28.8) 120/478 (25.1) 58 (20.1) / 62 (32.8)** 94/386 (24.4) 60 (23.9) / 34 (25.2)
Early morning awakening 117/923 (12.7) 56 (10.2) / 61 (16.2)* 55/494 (11.1) 25 (8.4) / 30 (15.2)* 41/394 (10.4) 24 (9.5) / 17 (12.1)
Suicidal ideation 53/954 (5.6) 20 (3.6) / 33 (8.4)** 22/508 (4.3) 10 (3.3) / 12 (6.0) 16/404 (4.0) 10 (3.8) / 6 (4.3)
Poor self-esteem 128/945 (13.5) 61 (11.0) / 67 (17.3)* 80/511 (15.7) 35 (11.4) / 45 (22.1)** 55/402 (13.7) 31 (11.7) / 24 (17.4)
Pessimism 230/954 (24.1) 113 (20.2) / 117 (29.7)** 121/503 (24.1) 67 (22.0) / 54 (27.1) 73/403 (18.1) 55 (20.8) / 18 (13.0)
Delusions 53/951 (5.6) 18 (3.2) / 35 (9.0)*** 22/507 (4.3) 6 (2.0) / 16 (7.9)** 19/401 (4.7) 8 (3.1) / 11 (7.9)*
Cut-off> 0.42a 184/955 (19.3) 68 (12.1) / 116 (29.4)*** 103/511 (20.2) 47 (15.3) / 56 (27.5)** 68/417 (16.3) 42 (15.4) / 26 (17.9)
CSDD items Incidence
Cumulative T1-T2 T2-T3
All nD / D All nD / D All nD / D
n/N (%) n (%) / n (%) n/N (%) n (%) / n (%) n/N (%) n (%) / n (%)
Anxiety 126/606 (20.8) 72 (18.6) / 54 (24.8) 83/313 (26.5) 47 (22.6) / 36 (34.3) 54/230 (23.5) 27 (16.5) / 27 (40.9)***
Sadness 121/678 (17.8) 74 (17.1) / 47 (19.3) 66/364 (18.1) 38 (16.1) / 28 (21.9) 52/267 (19.5) 34 (18.4) / 18 (22.0)
Lack of Joy 98/802 (12.2) 48 (9.5) / 50 (16.9)** 59/426 (13.8) 25 (9.1) / 34 (22.4)*** 37/295 (12.5) 22 (10.9) / 15 (16.1)
Irritability 122/705 (17.3) 64 (14.2) / 58 (22.7)** 73/375 (19.5) 31 (12.5) / 42 (33.1)*** 41/254 (16.1) 29 (15.8) / 12 (16.9)
Agitation 37/899 (4.1) 17 (3.1) / 20 (5.6) 21/481 (4.4) 6 (2.0) / 15 (8.2)** 11/327 (3.7) 7 (3.2) / 4 (3.7)
Retardation 93/789 (11.8) 42 (8.2) / 51 (18.3)*** 52/424 (12.3) 21 (7.6) / 31 (21.2)*** 37/300 (12.3) 18 (8.7) / 19 (20.2)*
Multiple physical complaints 146/614 (23.8) 93 (25.6) / 53 (21.1) 94/321 (29.3) 59 (29.6) / 35 (28.7) 42/206 (20.4) 27 (19.3) / 15 (22.7)
Lack of interest 86/784 (11.0) 42 (8.3) / 44 (15.9)** 56/415 (13.5) 26 (9.4) / 30 (21.6)** 31/296 (10.5) 16 (7.7) / 15 (17.0)*
Appetite loss 97/737 (13.2) 60 (12.8) / 37 (13.8) 51/388 (13.1) 28 (11.2) / 23 (16.8) 35/295 (11.9) 22 (11.2) / 13 (13.3)
Weight loss 81/795 (10.2) 51 (10.4) / 30 (9.8) 42/421 (10.0) 25 (9.4) / 17 (11.0) 30/304 (9.9) 20 (10.1) / 10 (9.5)
Lack of energy 113/683 (16.5) 68 (15.6) / 45 (18.2) 64/356 (18.0) 32 (13.7) / 32 (26.2)** 49/282 (17.4) 32 (16.8) / 17 (18.5)
Diurnal variation 78/833 (9.4) 39 (7.8) / 39 (11.8) 46/431 (10.7) 19 (7.2) / 27 (16.1)** 17/277 (6.1) 11 (5.8) / 6 (6.9)
Difficulty falling asleep 71/751 (9.5) 42 (9.5) / 29 (9.3) 34/387 (8.8) 20 (8.7) / 14 (8.9) 35/283 (12.4) 23 (12.4) / 12 (12.4)
Multiple awakening 119/657 (18.1) 61 (15.2) / 58 (22.7)* 68/342 (19.9) 29 (13.6) / 39 (30.2)*** 44/233 (18.9) 30 (18.3) / 14 (20.3)
Early morning awakening 63/806 (7.8) 28 (5.7) / 35 (11.1)** 40/430 (9.3) 19 (7.2) / 21 (12.7) 19/287 (6.6) 8 (4.2) / 11 (11.2)*
Suicidal ideation 28/901 (3.1) 15 (2.8) / 13 (3.6) 20/482 (4.1) 9 (3.0) / 11 (5.9) 9/324 (2.8) 4 (1.9) / 5 (4.6)
Poor self-esteem 76/817 (9.3) 36 (7.3) / 40 (12.5)* 53/438 (12.1) 24 (8.8) / 29 (17.5)* 25/288 (8.7) 14 (7.0) / 11 (12.5)
Pessimism 96/724 (13.3) 62 (13.9) / 34 (12.3) 67/381 (17.6) 41 (17.0) / 26 (18.6) 24/261 (9.2) 20 (11.2) / 4 (4.8)
Delusions 29/898 (3.2) 10 (1.8) / 19 (5.4)** 14/482 (2.9) 4 (1.4) / 10 (5.3)* 13/323 (4.0) 6 (2.8) / 7 (6.4)
Cut-off> 0.42a 120/771 (15.6) 69 (14.0) / 51 (18.3) 68/410 (16.6) 32 (12.0) / 36 (25.2)* 35/285 (12.3) 25 (12.6) / 10 (11.5)
CSDD items Persistence at two consecutive time points
  T1-T2 T2-T3
   All nD / D All nD / D
   n/N (%) n (%) / n (%) n/N (%) n (%) / n (%)
Anxiety    99/187 (52.9) 44 (47.8) / 55 (57.9) 62/112 (55.4) 37 (63.8) / 25 (46.3)
Sadness    66/142 (46.5) 27 (39.7) / 39 (52.7) 30/78 (38.5) 18 (45.0) / 12 (31.6)
Lack of Joy    28/82 (34.1) 8 (25.8) / 20 (39.2) 14/49 (28.6) 6 (28.6) / 8 (28.6)
Irritability    75/133 (56.4) 25 (43.9) / 50 (65.8)* 43/91 (47.3) 23 (54.8) / 20 (40.8)
Agitation    6/29 (20.7) 1 (11.1) / 5 (25.0) 4/19 (21.1) 1 (16.7) / 3 (23.1)
Retardation    9/28 (32.1) 2 (22.2) / 7 (36.8) 14/46 (30.4) 6 (31.6) / 8 (29.6)
Multiple physical complaints    92/180 (51.1) 51 (48.1) / 41 (55.4) 55/139 (39.6) 34 (40.5) / 21 (38.2)
Lack of interest    26/87 (29.9) 7 (24.1) / 19 (32.8) 13/46 (28.3) 5 (33.3) / 8 (25.8)
Appetite loss    36/117 (30.8) 16 (30.8) / 20 (30.8) 13/50 (26.0) 9 (33.3) / 4 (17.4)
Weight loss    9/71 (12.7) 5 (15.2) / 4 (10.5) 4/34 (11.8) 4 (19.0) / 0
Lack of energy    42/148 (28.4) 22 (30.6) / 20 (26.3) 19/62 (30.6) 12 (35.3) / 7 (25.0)
Diurnal variation    22/43 (51.2) 10 (47.6) / 12 (54.5) 13/44 (29.5) 5 (33.3) / 8 (27.6)
Difficulty falling asleep    26/91 (28.6) 19 (32.8) / 7 (21.2) 13/42 (31.0) 11 (39.3) / 2 (14.3)
Multiple awakening    39/104 (37.5) 22 (38.6) / 17 (36.2) 22/74 (29.7) 14 (36.8) / 8 (22.2)
Early morning awakening    14/56 (25.0) 6 (23.1) / 8 (26.7) 9/39 (23.1) 7 (35.0) / 2 (10.5)
Suicidal ideation    2/26 (7.7) 1 (9.1) / 1 (6.7) 3/16 (18.8) 2 (33.3) / 1 (10.0)
Poor self-esteem    26/69 (37.7) 11 (32.4) / 15 (42.9) 20/52 (38.5) 12 (50.0) / 8 (28.6)
Pessimism    54/121 (44.6) 26 (41.9) / 28 (47.5) 35/76 (46.1) 25 (58.1) / 10 (30.3)*
Delusions    8/23 (34.8) 2 (22.2) / 6 (42.9) 2/14 (14.3) 1 (20.0) / 1 (11.1)
Cut-off> 0.42a    35/101 (34.7) 15 (37.2) / 20 (32.8) 16/65 (24.6) 8 (26.7) / 8 (22.9)
  1. *** p < 0.001; ** p < 0.01; * p < 0.05 (results of generalized linear mixed model adjusting for within-municipality correlations; SAS GLIMMIX procedure)
  2. CSDD Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, nD no Dementia, D Dementia
  3. aA mean CSDD score higher than 0.42 was defined as clinically significant symptom level indicating depression, and is equivalent to a sum-score cut-off of 9 and higher for CSDD