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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants of the German Day-Care Study for the sample with 12-months follow-up data (n = 304)

From: Can brief telephone interventions reduce caregiver burden and depression in caregivers of people with cognitive impairment? - long-term results of the German day-care study (RCT)

CharacteristicsIntervention groupControl groupTest for group differences
(n = 173)(n = 131)(p)
Caregiver (CG)
 Age, M (SD)60.0 (11.8)59.0 (11.3).463a
 Women, no. (%)128 (74.0)99 (75.6).753b
 Educational attainment (yrs.), M (SD)i10.8 (2.8)10.8 (2.8).809a
 Occupation: Employed, no. (%)89 (51.4)72 (55.0).543b
 Marital status, no. (%) .755 b
  Married/long-term relationship133 (76.9)103 (78.6) 
  Widowed/Divorced24 (13.9)19 (14.5) 
  Single16 (9.2)9 (6.9) 
 Relationship to care recipient, no. (%) .846 b
  Spouse50 (28.9)36 (27.5) 
  Son/daughter (in-law)113 (65.3)89 (67.9) 
  Others10 (5.8)6 (4.6) 
 Caregiver burden (BSFC-s), M (SD)11.7 (8.0)13.0 (7.5).157a
 Depressiveness (WHO-5), M (SD)12.0 (6.0)12.0 (5.6).799a
 Benefits (BIZA-D), M (SD)12.7 (4.9)12.5 (5.5).747a
 Health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5 L), M (SD)0.9 (0.2)0.8 (0.2).140a
Person with cognitive impairment (PCI)
 Age, M (SD)81.1 (7.4)81.0 (7.6).843a
 Women, no. (%)107 (61.8)82 (62.6).894b
 Educational attainment (yrs.), M (SD)9.8 (2.5)9.6 (2.2).566a
 Cognitive impairment (MMSE), M (SD)ii19.7 (4.7)19.7 (4.7).931a
 Mild cognitive impairment25.8 (1.5)26.2 (1.5).215a
 Mild dementia20.5 (1.8)20.5 81.7).986a
 Moderate dementia14.5 (2.4)14.9 (2.0).349a
 Activities of daily living (ETAM), M (SD)18.0 (7.0)17.8 (7.4).881a
 Social behavior (NOSGER), M (SD)15.5 (4.2)15.5 (4.4).943a
 Neuropsychiatric symptomatology (NPI), M (SD)5.0 (2.7)5.3 (2.7).272a
 Care level, no. (%)iii .408b
  None7 (4.0)12 (9.2) 
  016 (9.2)13 (9.9) 
  195 (54.9)63 (48.1) 
  253 (30.6)42 (32.1) 
  32 (1.2)1 (0.8) 
 Use of anti-dementive medication, no. (%)iv120 (69.4)98 (74.8).297b
Care situation
 Main caregiver, no. (%)153 (88.4)119 (90.8).499b
 Sole informal caregiver, no. (%)97 (56.1)70 (53.4).648b
 Living together, no. (%)82 (47.4)59 (45.0).683b
 Duration of informal care (month), M (SD)61.5 (50.1)60.3 (55.1).846a
 Frequency of day-care use per week, M (SD)v1.9 (1.2)1.9 (1.1).809a
 Informal care time per day (h), M (SD)vi3.0 (2.1)3.1 (2.0).538a
 No. of additional offers of formal care support, M (SD)vii1.6 (1.3)1.6 (1.3).761a
 Use of other offers of caregiver counseling (%)viii44 (25.4)47 (35.9).058b
  1. i Minimum: 7 yrs. (no compulsory school-leaving certificate) – Maximum: 18 yrs. (university degree)
  2. ii Mild Cognitive Impairment: MMSE 30–24, Mild dementia: MMSE 23–18, Moderate dementia: MMSE 17–10
  3. iii Extent to which nursing care is needed according to the German Health and Care Insurance: none (no needs), 0 (low needs), 1 (moderate needs), 2 (high needs), and 3 (very high needs)
  4. iv Intake of memantine or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
  5. v Average frequency per week in the first month
  6. vi Hours of average informal care per day adjusted for day-care attendance at baseline
  7. vii Sum index of (in addition to day-care) formal care and support offers used (care service, care group, meals on wheels, respite care, ambulatory care service, home help service)
  8. viii Displays the use of either one: caregiver skill training/counseling service for caregivers/support group for caregivers at the beginning of the study
  9. a t-Test/U-Test
  10. b Chi-square Test