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Table 3 Estimated 10-year cognitive decline in each gait speed and handgrip strength quintile by linear mixed effects models

From: Role of gait speed and grip strength in predicting 10-year cognitive decline among community-dwelling older people

Model terms DSST MMSE
Estimate (SE) P-value Estimate (SE) P-value
【Gait speed】
 Intercept 40.88 (0.62) < 0.001 27.96 (0.10) < 0.001
 Gait speed Q1a Reference    
 Gait speed Q2 2.41 (0.86) 0.005 0.16 (0.14) 0.261
 Gait speed Q3 2.21 (0.85) 0.010 0.14 (0.14) 0.305
 Gait speed Q4 3.48 (0.91) < 0.001 0.08 (0.15) 0.598
 Gait speed Q5 3.96 (0.94) < 0.001 0.25 (0.15) 0.097
 Timeb −0.05 (0.09) 0.606 −0.16 (0.02) < 0.001
 Time-squaredb −0.05 (0.01) < 0.001  
 Gait speed Q1 x time Reference    
 Gait speed Q2 x time 0.14 (0.09) 0.140 0.02 (0.03) 0.421
 Gait speed Q3 x time 0.15 (0.09) 0.101 0.05 (0.03) 0.062
 Gait speed Q4 x time 0.13 (0.09) 0.146 0.02 (0.03) 0.590
 Gait speed Q5 x time 0.28 (0.09) 0.003 0.05 (0.03) 0.078
【Handgrip Strength】
 Intercept 41.57 (0.63) < 0.001 27.93 (0.10) < 0.001
 Handgrip strength Q1c Reference    
 Handgrip strength Q2 0.49 (0.86) 0.567 0.07 (0.14) 0.614
 Handgrip strength Q3 1.64 (0.88) 0.063 0.07 (0.14) 0.628
 Handgrip strength Q4 2.15 (0.90) 0.017 0.38 (0.14) 0.008
 Handgrip strength Q5 3.42 (0.95) < 0.001 0.23 (0.15) 0.127
 Timeb −0.04 (0.09) 0.710 −0.17 (0.02) < 0.001
 Time-squaredb − 0.05 (0.01) < 0.001  
 Handgrip strength Q1 x time Reference    
 Handgrip strength Q2 x time 0.07 (0.10) 0.439 0.04 (0.03) 0.189
 Handgrip strength Q3 x time 0.11 (0.09) 0.259 0.05 (0.03) 0.060
 Handgrip strength Q4 x time 0.20 (0.09) 0.033 0.05 (0.03) 0.082
 Handgrip strength Q5 x time 0.20 (0.10) 0.040 0.06 (0.03) 0.039
  1. All models were adjusted by covariates (age, gender, education years, marital status, smoking status, body mass index, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, depressive symptoms and Charlson Comorbidity Index) and their interactions with time. The covariates were grand-mean centered. However, these estimates were not presented, and only the estimates of interest (intercept, time, and their interactions with physical function) are shown
  2. In males: Q1 as the lowest quintile and Q5 as the highest quintile; 1.12; 1.13–1.25; 1.26–1.37; 1.38–1.47; and > 1.48, m/s
  3. In females: Q1 as the lowest quintile and Q5 as the highest quintile; 1.13; 1.14–1.22; 1.23–1.32; 1.33–1.42; and > 1.43, m/s
  4. In males: Q1 as the lowest quintile and Q5 as the highest quintile: 30.70; 30.71–33.90; 33.91–37.40; 37.41–41.25; and > 41.25 kg
  5. In females: Q1 as the lowest quintile and Q5 as the highest quintile: 18.50; 18.51–20.90; 20.91–23.10; 23.11–25.70; and > 25.70 kg
  6. SE standard error, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, DSST Digit Symbol Substitution Test
  7. Among a sample of 1096 adults, those with missing values in physical and cognitive functions and covariates at baseline were excluded from the analyses. Thus, the sample sizes varied according to the models: in the gait speed models, N = 1006 for DSST, and N = 1007 for MMSE; in the grip strength models, N = 1022 for DSST, and N = 1024 for MMSE
  8. aGait speed in each group
  9. bYears since baseline. Time-squared was included in modeling non-linear change of DSST
  10. cHandgrip strength in each group