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Table 2 Comparison of baseline demographic data according to the quintiles of handgrip strength

From: Role of gait speed and grip strength in predicting 10-year cognitive decline among community-dwelling older people

Variable Handgrip Strength N = 1081 P value
Q1 219 (20.3%) Q2 218 (20.2%) Q3 217 (20.1%) Q4 217 (20.1%) Q5 210 (19.4%)
Age (years) 72.9 ± 5.0 70.9 ± 5.5 69.3 ± 5.5 67.8 ± 5.4 65.8 ± 4.9 < 0.001
Gender       0.990
 Male 112 (51.1%) 111 (50.9%) 111 (51.2%) 108 (49.8%) 110 (52.4%)  
 Female 107 (48.9%) 107 (49.1%) 106 (48.8%) 109 (50.2%) 100 (47.6%)  
Smoking status       0.056
 Non-smoking 176 (80.4%) 180 (82.6%) 196 (90.3%) 179 (82.9%) 174 (82.9%)  
 Smoking 43 (19.6%) 38 (17.4%) 21 (9.7%) 37 (17.1%) 36 (17.1%)  
Education (years) 10.4 ± 2.6 10.3 ± 2.5 10.8 ± 2.6 11.0 ± 2.8 11.3 ± 2.6 < 0.001
Marital status       0.754
 Single 49 (22.4%) 46 (21.1%) 41 (18.9%) 42 (19.4%) 37 (17.6%)  
 Married 170 (77.6%) 172 (78.9%) 176 (81.1%) 175 (80.6%) 173 (82.4%)  
BMI (kg/m2) 22.1 ± 3.5 22.8 ± 3.1 23.0 ± 2.9 23.3 ± 2.9 23.4 ± 2.6 < 0.001
TMIG-IC 4.8 ± 0.5 4.9 ± 0.4 4.9 ± 0.4 4.9 ± 0.4 4.9 ± 0.4 0.723
Depressive symptoms       0.009
 Yes 35 (16.4%) 21 (10.0%) 24 (11.7%) 19 (9.0%) 12 (5.9%)  
 No 178 (83.6%) 189 (90.0%) 181 (88.3%) 193 (91.0%) 193 (94.1%)  
CCI 2.0 ± 2.4 1.6 ± 2.4 1.4 ± 2.0 1.2 ± 1.7 1.1 ± 1.7 < 0.001
MMSE 27.8 ± 1.8 27.9 ± 1.7 28.0 ± 1.6 28.4 ± 1.5 28.3 ± 1.5 < 0.001
DSST 38.4 ± 10.4 39.9 ± 10.4 43.1 ± 10.0 44.6 ± 11.8 48.3 ± 10.7 < 0.001
  1. Handgrip strength in each group:
  2. In males: Q1 as the lowest quintile and Q5 as the highest quintile: 30.70; 30.71–33.90; 33.91–37.40; 37.41–41.25; and > 41.25 kg
  3. In females: Q1 as the lowest quintile and Q5 as the highest quintile: 18.50; 18.51–20.90; 20.91–23.10; 23.11–25.70; and > 25.70 kg
  4. BMI body mass index, TMIG-IC Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, DSST Digit Symbol Substitution Test
  5. The following data were missing: smoking status, n = 1; TMIG-IC, n = 5; depressive symptoms, n = 36; CCI, n = 17; DSST, n = 2