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Table 3 Characteristics of subjects in the prospective cohort over 12 months (n = 162)

From: Frailty state among Indonesian elderly: prevalence, associated factors, and frailty state transition

Characteristics At Baseline At 12th Month
Age, mean ± SD, years 72.9 ± 5.9 73.0 ± 5.9
Sex, no. (%)
 Female 93 (57.4) 93 (57.4)
 Male 69 (42.6) 69 (42.6)
Functional status, n (%)
 Independent (ADL score = 20) 120 (74.1) 100 (61.7)
 Dependent (ADL score < 20) 42 (25.9) 62 (38.3)
Nutritional status, n (%)
 Normal 136 (84) 131 (80.9)
 At Risk of Malnutrition 25 (15.4) 30 (18.5)
 Malnourished 1 (0.6) 1 (0.6)
Mental status, n (%)
 Normal 150 (92.6) 154 (95.1)
 Strong Probability of Depression 9 (5.6) 7 (4.3)
 Indicative of Depression 3 (1.9) 1 (0.6)
Frailty state, n (%)
 Robust 9 (5.6) 2 (1.2)
 Prefrail 114 (70.4) 104 (64.2)
 Frail 39 (24.1) 56 (34.6)
Quality of life
 Positive (excellent, very good, and good) 58 (35.8) 58 (35.8)
 Negative (fair and poor QoL) 104 (64.2) 104 (64.2)
Commorbidities (CIRS-G Score), mean ± SD 11.8 ± 3.69 10.0 ± 3.5
Number of drugs consumed, mean ± SD 6.9 ± 2.75 6.9 ± 2.7
Handgrip strength, mean ± SD, kg 18.4 ± 6.61 17.1 ± 7.1
Gait speed, mean ± SD, m/s 1.0 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.3