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Table 2 Sociodemographic, Fish, Vegetables and Fruits, Meat, and Problematic Alcohol Use Correlates of Depression and Subsyndromal Depression

From: Exploring Singapore’s consumption of local fish, vegetables and fruits, meat and problematic alcohol use as risk factors of depression and subsyndromal depression in older adults

  Depressiona Subsyndromala
Variables Category OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
Diet Seabass (L. calcarifer) 0.67 0.39 1.16 0.15 0.58 0.36 0.95 0.03
Stingray (H. gerrardi) 1.31 0.71 2.45 0.39 1.91 1.20 3.04 0.01
Grouper (E. coioides) 0.72 0.38 1.35 0.31 0.83 0.53 1.30 0.41
Pomfret (P. chinesis) 1.68 0.89 3.16 0.11 0.92 0.60 1.41 0.69
Yellow Tail (A. mate) 1.24 0.68 2.26 0.49 1.34 0.92 1.95 0.13
Snapper (P. multidens) 0.54 0.29 1.00 0.05 0.80 0.53 1.21 0.30
Mackerel (S. commerson) 0.88 0.51 1.52 0.66 1.30 0.89 1.90 0.18
Vegetables & Fruits 0.11 0.02 0.45 0.00 0.10 0.03 0.39 0.00
Meat 3.21 1.02 10.14 0.05 2.61 1.20 5.67 0.02
Problematic Alcohol Use   2.04 0.62 6.67 0.24 2.81 1.25 6.33 0.01
Age (in years) 60–74 Ref.     Ref.    
75–84 1.88 0.94 3.75 0.07 0.85 0.53 1.36 0.49
85+ 1.92 0.69 5.33 0.21 1.08 0.59 2.00 0.80
Sex Male Ref.     Ref.    
Female 2.33 0.79 6.84 0.13 1.41 0.82 2.42 0.22
Ethnicity Chinese Ref.     Ref.    
Malay 2.36 1.18 4.72 0.02 0.89 0.59 1.34 0.57
Indians 4.99 2.71 9.18 0.00 1.71 1.18 2.47 0.01
Others 2.07 0.27 15.86 0.48 1.32 0.49 3.56 0.58
Marital status Married/Cohabitating Ref.     Ref.    
Never married 0.47 0.08 2.62 0.39 1.23 0.59 2.57 0.58
Widowed 0.47 0.22 1.02 0.06 1.22 0.76 1.95 0.42
Divorced/Separated 0.78 0.32 1.88 0.58 2.17 0.97 4.87 0.06
Education Tertiary Ref.     Ref.    
None 0.85 0.22 3.22 0.81 1.83 0.81 4.15 0.15
Some, but did not complete Primary 0.42 0.12 1.50 0.18 1.43 0.68 3.00 0.34
Primary 0.69 0.21 2.22 0.53 0.92 0.43 1.96 0.84
Secondary 0.49 0.16 1.55 0.23 1.22 0.58 2.54 0.60
Employment Status Employed Ref.     Ref.    
Unemployed 1.35 0.22 8.46 0.75 1.74 0.30 10.07 0.54
Homemaker 1.00 0.39 2.56 0.99 1.01 0.58 1.77 0.96
Retired 1.08 0.49 2.35 0.86 0.93 0.58 1.51 0.77
Smoking Status Never Smoked Ref.     Ref.    
Smoked Before 0.82 0.29 2.31 0.71 1.08 0.63 1.85 0.79
Current Smoker 1.53 0.49 4.82 0.47 0.59 0.30 1.13 0.11
Household Assets   0.90 0.74 1.10 0.31 0.91 0.79 1.04 0.17
Physically Active No Ref.     Ref.    
Yes 0.20 0.11 0.36 0.00 0.56 0.36 0.86 0.01
Body Mass Index (BMI) (mean)   1.02 0.96 1.08 0.51 1.01 0.98 1.05 0.51
  1. aNon-depression group was used as the reference category