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Table 2 Adjusted hazard ratios for factors associated with hip fracture

From: Incidence of hip fracture among long-term care insurance beneficiaries with dementia: comparison of home care and institutional care services

Variable Hip fracture
Total HRb 95% CI
Type of care
 Institutional care 4.32 2.83 6.58
 Home care 1.00   
Age
 60–74 1.00   
 75–80 1.18 0.71 1.95
 81–85 1.30 0.78 2.16
 86–90 1.40 0.82 2.37
 91≤ 2.30 1.33 3.98
Sex
 Male 0.79 0.51 1.23
 Female 1.00   
Region
 Urban 1.16 0.86 1.57
 Rural 1.00   
Income level
 Low 1.00   
 Middle 0.90 0.57 1.41
 High 0.95 0.69 1.31
Primary Caregiver
 Spouse 0.21 0.07 0.67
 Children 0.47 0.23 0.96
 Care assistant 1.00   
 None 0.34 0.18 0.65
Cohabitant
 Living alone 1.00   
 Spouse (one generation family) 2.54 0.73 8.90
 Family members (two generation family) 2.16 0.83 5.63
 Caregivers from Long term care facilities 2.98 1.17 7.60
Others 1.53 0.57 4.09
Having danger of fracture based on the mandatory assessment for long term care benefita
 Yes 1.00   
 No 1.28 0.91 1.80
LTCI benefit coverage level
 1 0.44 0.15 1.32
 2 1.00   
Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)
 0 1.00   
 1 1.02 0.67 1.56
 2 1.37 0.88 2.15
 3+ 1.86 1.21 2.87
LTC approval score (LTCAS, mean ± SD) 1.00 0.98 1.03
ADL (mean ± SD) 1.04 0.99 1.09
Cognitive function score (mean ± SD) 0.98 0.91 1.05
Behavioral symptoms score (mean ± SD) 0.92 0.86 0.98
Ambulatory status
 Ambulatory 1.00   
 Partially ambulatory 1.12 0.67 1.87
 Not ambulatory 1.96 1.19 3.22
Ownership type
 Local government 1.00   
 Non-profit 0.72 0.42 1.26
 Private 0.73 0.41 1.29
  1. aThe record regarding having danger of fracture was based on the information of patients’ mandatory assessment data, which is requested to qualify to become long-term care beneficiaries
  2. bAdjusted for age, sex, region, income level, primary caregiver, cohabitant, having danger of fracture based on the mandatory assessment for long-term care benefit, LTCI benefit coverage level, CCI, LTCAS, ADL, cognitive function score, ambulatory status, and ownership type