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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics by Incidence of Hip Fracture

From: Incidence of hip fracture among long-term care insurance beneficiaries with dementia: comparison of home care and institutional care services

Variable N Col %a No Hip Fracture Hip Fracture P-value
N Row %b N Row %b
Total 7112 100.0 6997 98.4 115 1.6
Type of care
 Institutional care 2802 39.4 2712 96.8 90 3.2 <.0001
 Home care 4310 60.6 4285 99.4 25 0.6  
Age
 60–74 1131 15.9 1117 98.8 14 1.2 0.380
 75–80 1795 25.2 1769 98.6 26 1.5  
 81–85 1810 25.5 1782 98.5 28 1.6  
 86–90 1454 20.4 1428 98.2 26 1.8  
 91≤ 922 13.0 901 97.7 21 2.3  
Sex
 Male 1963 27.6 1951 99.4 12 0.6 <.0001
 Female 5149 72.4 5046 98.0 103 2.0  
Region
 Urban 2835 39.9 2791 98.5 44 1.6 0.724
 Rural 4277 60.1 4206 98.3 71 1.7  
Income level
 Low 2565 36.1 2515 98.1 50 2.0 0.170
 Middle 1173 16.5 1153 98.3 20 1.7  
 High 3374 47.4 3329 98.7 45 1.3  
Primary Caregiver
 Spouse 1277 18.0 1271 99.5 6 0.5 <.0001
 Children 3285 46.2 3243 98.7 42 1.3  
 Care assistant 2341 32.9 2280 97.4 61 2.6  
 None 209 2.9 203 97.1 6 2.9  
Cohabitant
 Living alone 360 5.1 358 99.4 2 0.6 <.0001
 Spouse (one generation family) 1096 15.4 1088 99.3 8 0.7  
 Family members (two generation family) 3127 44.0 3083 98.6 44 1.4  
 Caregivers from Long term care facilities 1593 22.4 1548 97.2 45 2.8  
 Others 936 13.2 920 98.3 16 1.7  
Having danger of fracture based on the mandatory assessment for long term care benefitc
 Yes 5457 76.7 5379 98.6 78 1.4 0.023
 No 1655 23.3 1618 97.8 37 2.2  
LTCI benefit coverage level
 1 183 2.6 179 97.8 4 2.2 0.537
 2 6929 97.4 6818 98.4 111 1.6  
Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)
 0 1655 23.3 1630 98.5 25 1.5 0.738
 1 2167 30.5 2136 98.6 31 1.4  
 2 1540 21.7 1513 98.3 27 1.8  
 3+ 1750 24.6 1718 98.2 32 1.8  
LTC approval score (LTCAS, mean ± SD)    81.5 ± 8.1 83.8 ± 13.0  
ADL (mean ± SD)    32.3 ± 4.1 33.6 ± 5.2  
Cognitive function score (mean ± SD)    7.0 ± 2.1 7.0 ± 1.9  
Behavioral symptoms score (mean ± SD)    3.6 ± 3.2 3.3 ± 3.1  
Ambulatory status
 Ambulatory 1243 17.5 1225 98.6 18 1.5 0.003
 Partially ambulatory 2800 39.4 2770 98.9 30 1.1  
 Not ambulatory 3069 43.2 3002 97.8 67 2.2  
Ownership type
 Local government 277 3.9 269 97.1 8 2.9 0.077
 Non-profit 2836 39.9 2784 98.2 52 1.8  
 Private 3999 56.2 3944 98.6 55 1.4  
  1. aIt presented column percentage. Column percentage shows the proportion of a total of 7112 participants in each category
  2. bIt presented row percentage. Row percentage add up to each row total, and shows the proportion within each characteristics in each row by whether having the incidence of hip fracture or not
  3. cThe record regarding having pressure ulcer was based on the information of patients’ mandatory assessment data, which is requested to qualify to become a long-term care beneficiaries