Skip to main content

Table 2 Health screening measurements, source of population norm data, compliance with population norms, and age and gender effects on non-compliance. An OR less than 1 indicates that males are more likely than females to have the outcome and an OR greater than 1 indicates that females are more likely to have the outcome than males

From: Health deficits in community dwelling adults aged 40 to 75 years

Measure Non-compliant
n (%)
Independent age group effect Independent gender effect Age and gender subgroups
(OR 95% CI) (OR 95% CI) (OR 95% CI)
Comparator 40–49 y Comparator Female Comparator Female 40-49y
Overweight or obese* 338 (61.1) 40-49y OR = 1 0.7 (0.5–1.0)  
BMI 25–29.9 (overweight), 30+ (obese) [13] 50-59y 1.7 (1.1–2.9)
60-69y 1.8 (1.2–2.9)
70 + y 2.2 (1.3–3.9)
Waist-hip ratio 298 (53.1) 40-49y OR = 1 0.2 (0.1–0.3) Compared with F 40-49y:
  50-59y 0.5 (0.3–0.7) M40-49y 0.2 (0.07–0.4)
High risk: >  0.90 for males; >  0.85 for females [13] 60-69y 1.0 (0.6–1.7) M50-59y 0.3 (0.1–0.5)
70 + y 1.1 (0.7–3.9) M60-69y 0.6 (0.3–0.3)
Physical activity* (see Footnote for description) 293 (52.9) No significant age effects 1.5 (1.1–2.1)  
Blood Glucose 3.0–7.7 mmol/L [16] 216 (38.5) No significant age effects No significant gender effects  
Audiology* 188 (33.9) 40-49y OR = 1 0.6 (0.4–0.9) Compared with F40-49y:
7 or 8 = pass [17] 50-59y 2.5 (1.2–5.0) F 50-59y 3.1 (1.2–8.1)
  60-69y 7.6 (3.9–14.6) F 60-69y 6.0 (2.4–15.1)
70 + y 6.7 (3.4–13.3) F 70 + y 7.3 (2.9–18.6)
M 60-69y 20.0 (7.3–54.5)
     M 70 + y 8.4 (2.8–24.9)
Waist circumference* 185 (33.4) No significant age effects 2.1 (1.4–3.2) Compared with F 40-49y:
High risk: females: ≥ 88 cm M 40-49y 0.04 (0.01–0.1)
males: ≥102 cm or more [13] M 50-59y 0.1 (0.05–0.3)
M 60-69y 0.14 (0.1–0.3)
M70 + y 0.1 (0.05–0.2)
Cognition and memory* 179 (32.3) No significant age effects No significant gender effects  
GPCog <=8 [18]
Blood pressure* 164 (29.6) 40-49y OR = 1 No significant gender effects Compared with F 40-49y:
90-140 mmHg systolic, 60-90 mmHg diastolic [16] 50-59y 1.3 (0.7–2.3)   F 70 + y 2.5 (1.2–5.3)
60-69y 1.5 (0.9–2.5) M 60-69y 2.7 (1.2–6.1)
70 + y 1.9 (1.1–3.5)
Mobility* 140 (25.3) 40-49y OR = 1 1.4 (1.0–2.2) Compared with F 40-49y:
Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) 50-59y 1.3 (0.8–3.1) F 70 + y 4.1 (1.8–8.9)
6MWDm = 518.853 + (1.25 x height in cm) – (2.816 x age in years) – (39.07 x sex men = 0; women = 1) [19, 20] 60-69y 2.3 (1.2–4.3)
70 + y 3.8 (1.9–7.4)
Foot sensation* 123 (22.6) 40-49y OR = 1 0.6 (0.4–0.9) Compared with F 40-49y:
Mono-filament testing All 20 correct responses (10 each foot) [21 50-59y 2.2 (1.0–4.5) F 60-69y 3.6 (1.3–9.9)
60-69y 2.9 (1.5–5.9) F 70 + y 4.2 (1.5–11.6)
70 + y 4.1 (2.0–8.5) M 50-59y 4.0 (1.6–12.8)
M 60-69y 4.8 (1.6–14.1)
M 70 + y 10.2 (3.2–32.4)
Perceived exertion* 115 (20.5) No significant age effects No significant gender effects  
Borg Exertion Scale
scale 6–20, at-risk values> 13 [22]
Sleep quality* 113 (20.4) No significant age effects No significant gender effects  
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index)(PSQI) ≥ 8 [23, 24]
Lung capacity* 82 (14.8) No significant age effects No significant gender effects Compared with F 40-49y)
FEV1, FVC Normative tables for age and gender see [25] M 40-49y 3.9 (1.3–11.9)
M 50-59y 3.9 (1.2–12.3)
Dexterity* 82 (14.4) No significant age effects No significant gender effects  
The Purdue Dexterity Test norms see [26]
Grip strength* (dominant hand) Hand held dynamometer 74 (13.4) No significant age effects No significant gender effects  
At-risk is in lowest 20th% of gender-age distribution [27, 28]
Respiratory rate* 17 (13.1) No significant age effects No significant gender effects  
12–20 breaths/min [16]
Oximetry* 36 (6.5) 40-49y OR = 1 No significant gender effects  
< 96% [16] 50-59y 6.1 (0.73–50.3)  
60-69y 1.8 (1.5–90.4)
70 + y 9.7 (1.2–77.3)
K10 Psychological Distress* 32 (5.8) No significant age effects No significant gender effects  
≥ 13 [29]
Dyspnoea 8 (1.4) No significant age effects No significant gender effects  
Borg Dyspnoea Scale At-risk values > 4 [22]
Temperature 3 (0.5) No significant age effects No significant gender effects  
35.5–37.5 degrees C [16]
Heart rate 4 (0.4) No significant age effects No significant gender effects  
60–100 beats per min [16]
  1. Key: Significant differences between expected compliance and percentage of non-compliant scores (p < 0.05) identified by* after each measure; significant age group effects identified by italics: CI confidence interval, F female, M male, OR odds ratio, y years
  2. Footnote: Active Australia Survey 18–65 year olds at risk: < 150 to 300 min (2 ½ to 5 h) moderate intensity physical activity, or 75 to 150 min (1 ¼ to 2 ½ hours) of vigorous intensity physical activity, or combination of both, each week. 65+ years at-risk: < 30 min moderate intensity physical activity on most days [14, 15]