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Table 4 Longitudinal associations between sarcopenia at baseline and independent ageing five years later, and between their respective components

From: The impact of muscle function, muscle mass and sarcopenia on independent ageing in very old Swedish men

  Independent aging MMSE ≥ 25 p No dementia Community-dwelling No assistance with personal careb No assistance with outdoor walking
n = 87 n = 85 n = 112 n = 112 n = 107 n = 106
  Odds ratio (95% Confidence interval)
EWGSOP1
 Sarcopenia 1.04 (0.40–2.74) 1.09 (0.20–5.86) 1.76 (0.35–8.78) 2.57 (0.45–14.7) 1.89 (0.39–9.07) 0.36 (0.10–1.31)
EWGSOP2
 Probable sarcopenia 0.56 (0.24–1.30) 0.80 (0.17–3.76) 0.26 (0.058–1.15) 0.39 (0.095–1.62) 0.61 (0.19–1.94) 0.55 (0.14–2.26)
 Confirmed sarcopenia 1.14 (0.43–3.06) 2.19 (0.25–19.2) 1.79 (0.36–8.82) 1.74 (0.35–8.74) 1.22 (0.31–4.75) 1.18 (0.23–5.93)
 Severe sarcopeni n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Skeletal muscle indexa, kg/m2 1.04 (0.71–1.53) 0.80 (0.41–1.56) 0.75 (0.42–1.34) 0.94 (0.53–1.66) 0.88 (0.52–1.48) 1.00 (0.55–1.83)
Gait speeda, m/s 1.84 (1.19–2.82) 1.15 (0.59–2.25) 1.63 (0.94–2.83) 1.35 (0.77–2.38) 2.34 (1.29–4.26) 1.21 (0.67–2.20)
Hand grip strengtha, kg 1.43 (0.95–2.14) 0.91 (0.44–1.88) 1.39 (0.76–2.54) 1.94 (1.01–3.74) 1.37 (0.80–2.36) 1.44 (0.73–2.84)
Chair stand testa, s 1.01 (0.66–1.54) 1.35 (0.43–4.20) 1.09 (0.58–2.03) 0.88 (0.55–1.40) 1.04 (0.57–1.88) 1.10 (0.51–2.35)
  1. EWGSOP European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, MMSE Mini-mental State Examination, n/a not applicable
  2. Adjusted for age at baseline, smoking status, Charlson comorbidity index and total fat mass
  3. aThe results are showed as odds ratios per one standard deviation in continuous variables
  4. bAssistance with bathing, dressing and/or toileting