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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the populations used for the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, respectively

From: The impact of muscle function, muscle mass and sarcopenia on independent ageing in very old Swedish men

  Total population in cross-sectional analyses n = 287 Participants who were followed up in longitudinal analyses n = 127
Age (years), mean ± SD 86.6 ± 1.0 86.5 ± 1.0
Educational level, n (%)
 Low 140 (49) 56 (44)
 Medium 88 (31) 44 (35)
 High 59 (21) 27 (21)
Physical activity, n (%)
 Sedentary 49 (24) 13 (14)
 Moderate 82 (40) 42 (47)
 Regular 69 (33) 30 (33)
 Athletic 6 (3) 5 (6)
Living with someone, n (%) 137 (65) 67 (73)
Smoking status, n (%)
 Smoker 16 (6) 4 (3)
 Former smoking 155 (54) 64 (50)
 Never smoking 116 (40) 59 (46)
Charlson Comorbidity Index, n (%)
 0 111 (39) 60 (47)
 1 104 (36) 51 (40)
  ≥ 2 72 (25) 16 (13)
Body mass index, kg/m2, mean ± SD 25.6 ± 3.3 25.8 ± 3.0
Total fat mass, kg, mean ± SD 22.2 ± 7.5 22.8 ± 7.4
EWGSOP1
 Sarcopenia, n (%) 60 (21) 25 (20)
EWGSOP2
 Probable sarcopenia, n (%) 209 (73) 81 (64)
 Confirmed sarcopenia, n (%) 58 (20) 24 (19)
 Severe sarcopenia, n (%) 5 (2) 1 (0.8)
Skeletal muscle index, kg/m2, mean ± SD 7.5 ± 0.8 7.5 ± 0.7
  < 7.0 kg/m2 72 (25) 34 (27)
  < 7.26 kg/m2 109 (38) 49 (39)
Gait speed, m/s, mean ± SD 1.4 ± 0.3 1.5 ± 0.3
  ≤ 0.8 m/s 16 (6) 2 (2)
Hand grip strength, kg, mean ± SD 30.2 ± 6.5 31.2 ± 6.1
  < 27 kg 79 (28) 32 (25)
  < 30 kg 132 (46) 53 (42)
Chair stand test, s, mean ± SD 17.9 ± 7.1 16.4 ± 6.0
  > 15 s 148 (61) 54 (48)
  1. SD standard deviation, EWGSOP European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People