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Table 4 Independent and joint effects of handgrip strength and depression on all-cause mortality stratified by sex

From: Handgrip strength, depression, and all-cause mortality in Korean older adults

Gender Exposures Crude HR (95% CI) P value Adjusted HR (95% CI)a P value
Low HGS Depression
Total Negative Negative 1   1  
Negative Positive 1.505 (1.129 ~  2.006) 0.005 1.366 (1.033 ~  1.807) 0.029
Positive Negative 1.628 (1.344 ~  1.973) < 0.001 1.208 (0.782 ~  1.866) 0.394
Positive Positive 3.194 (2.635 ~  3.871) < 0.001 1.961 (1.409 ~  2.736) < 0.001
Men Negative Negative 1   1  
Negative Positive 1.682 (1.1.07~2.554) 0.015 1.376 (1.029 ~  1.841) 0.031
Positive Negative 1.786 (1.395 ~  2.287) < 0.001 1.120 (0.694 ~  1.807) 0.643
Positive Positive 4.259 (3.308 ~  5.483) < 0.001 1.861 (1.306 ~  2.651) 0.001
Women Negative Negative    1  
Negative Positive 1.597 (1.070 ~  2.386) 0.022 0.763 (0.250 ~  2.325) 0.634
Positive Negative 1.394 (1.026 ~  1.894) 0.034 1.339 (0.440 ~  4.073) 0.607
Positive Positive 2.670 (1.985 ~  3.591) < 0.001 2.603 (0.981 ~  6.908) 0.055
  1. HR Hazard ratio, CI Confidence interval, HGS Handgrip strength. HRa adjusted for age, sex, BMI, income, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, nutritional risk, comorbidities, K-ADL and MMSE scores, and physical activity