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Table 2 Comparison of measured parameters according to handgrip strength

From: Handgrip strength, depression, and all-cause mortality in Korean older adults

  Handgrip strength
Men Women
Low High P value Low High P value
N 3130 2866   4073 3.832  
Age (years) 68.80 ± 6.88 68.46 ± 6.11 0.043 70.56 ± 7.58 69.88 ± 7.10 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 22.90 ± 2.98 23.84 ± 2.78 < 0.001 23.98 ± 3.50 24.38 ± 3.33 < 0.001
aEducation, n (%)
 0–3 years 462 (14.8) 243 (8.5)   1778 (43.7) 1353 (35.3)  
 4–6 years 1026 (32.8) 864 (30.1) < 0.001 1382 (33.9) 1406 (36.7) < 0.001
  ≥ 7 years 1567 (50.1) 1721 (60.0)   786 (19.3) 971 (25.3)  
Income (10,000 won) 164.70 ± 174.56 187.49 ± 215.86 < 0.001 135.80 ± 177.57 144.85 ± 170.48 0.045
Marital status, n (%)
 Single/married not living with anyone 206 (6.6) 151 (5.3) 0.033 1070 (26.3) 906 (23.6) 0.007
 Married/living with someone 2924 (93.4) 2715 (94.7)   3003 (73.7) 2927 (76.4)  
Past/current smokers, n (%) 2146 (68.6) 1987 (69.3) 0.539 268 (6.3) 225 (5.9) 0.398
bAlcohol consumption, n (%)
 No drinking 1418 (45.3) 1087 (37.9) < 0.001 3305 (81.2) 2924 (76.3) 0.019
 two times a week (or more) 980 (31.3) 1038 (36.2)   176 (4.3) 200 (5.2)  
Nutrition score 3.23 ± 3.20 2.38 ± 2.67 < 0.001 3.82 ± 3.34 3.04 ± 3.23 < 0.001
Number of comorbidities 1.55 ± 1.40 1.29 ± 1.23 < 0.001 2.22 ± 1.59 1.88 ± 1.53 < 0.001
K-ADL (score) 7.34 ± 1.36 7.06 ± 0.50 < 0.001 7.29 ± 1.17 7.07 ± 0.49 < 0.001
SGDS-K (score) 4.75 ± 4.54 3.01 ± 3.49 < 0.001 6.08 ± 4.58 4.25 ± 4.06 < 0.001
MMSE-KC (score) 25.11 ± 3.85 26.39 ± 2.90 < 0.001 22.33 ± 4.81 23.90 ± 4.05 < 0.001
Death, n (%) 309 (9.9) 121 (4.2) < 0.001 178 (4.4) 88 (2.3) < 0.001
Absolute Handgrip strength (kg) 26.03 ± 5.90 36.82 ± 4.60 < 0.001 15.48 ± 3.68 23.00 ± 3.70 < 0.001
Relative Handgrip strength (kg/BMI) 2.22 ± 0.56 2.99 ± 0.46 < 0.001 1.24 ± 0.33 1.82 ± 0.36 < 0.001
Physical activity (Mets/week) 1677.9 ± 1885.2 2182.6 ± 2229.9 < 0.001 1127.6 ± 1428.1 1428.9 ± 1730.5 < 0.001
  1. For continuous variables, values are mean; BMI Body mass index, K-ADL Korean Activities of Daily Living, MMSE-KC Korean version of mini-mental state examination, SGDS-K Korean version of 15-item geriatric depression scale. aMen with low HGS (n = 75) and high HGS (n = 38) and women with low HGS (n = 127) and high HGS (n = 102) had no data available. bMen with low HGS (n = 732) and high HGS (n = 741) and women with low HGS (n = 593) and high HGS (n = 708) had no data available