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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants

From: Handgrip strength, depression, and all-cause mortality in Korean older adults

Parameters Total (N = 13,901) Men (N = 5996) Women (N = 7905) p value
Age (years) 69.54 ± 7.06 68.64 ± 6.53 70.23 ± 7.36 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.83 ± 3.24 23.36 ± 2.92 24.19 ± 3.43 < 0.001
aEducation, n (%)
 0–3 years 3836 (27.6) 705 (11.8) 3131 (39.6) < 0.001
 4–6 years 4677 (33.6) 1890 (31.5) 2788 (35.3)
  ≥ 7 years 5045 (36.3) 3288 (54.8) 1757 (22.2)
Income (10,000 won) 155.94 ± 185.47 176.07 ± 203.48 140.67 ± 168.96 < 0.001
Marital status, n (%)
 Single/married not living with anyone 2332 (16.8) 357 (6.0) 1975 (25.0) < 0.001
 Married/living with someone 11,569 (83.2) 5639 (94.0) 5930 (75.0)
Past/current smokers, n (%) 4617 (33.2) 4134 (68.9) 483 (6.1) < 0.001
bAlcohol consumption, n (%)
 No drinking 8734 (62.8) 2506 (41.8) 6229 (78.8) < 0.001
 two times a week (or more) 2394 (17.2) 2018 (33.7) 375 (4.8)
Nutrition score 3.15 ± 3.18 2.80 ± 2.98 3.42 ± 3.30 < 0.001
Number of comorbidity 1.78 ± 1.50 1.42 ± 1.32 2.05 ± 1.57 < 0.001
K-ADL (score) 7.19 ± 0.98 7.20 ± 1.01 7.18 ± 0.92 0.265
SGDS-K (score) 4.64 ± 4.37 3.92 ± 4.16 5.18 ± 4.44 < 0.001
MMSE-KC (score) 24.22 ± 4.37 25.69 ± 3.52 23.11 ± 4.52 < 0.001
Death, n (%) 696 (5.0) 430 (7.2) 266 (3.4) < 0.001
  1. BMI Body mass index, K-ADL Korean Activities of Daily Living, MMSE-KC Korean version of mini-mental state examination, SGDS-K Korean version of 15-item geriatric depression scale. aMen (n = 113) and women (n = 229) had no data available. bMen (n = 1472) and women (n = 1301) had no data available