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Table 1 Instruments used in assessment of patient prior to medication review

From: Implementing a novel strategy for interprofessional medication review using collegial mentoring and systematic clinical evaluation in nursing homes (COSMOS)

Short name Range Interpretation
Cognition
 MMSE 0–30 The patient is asked 30 questions, scored correct (1) or wrong (0). Lower scores indicates lower cognitive function [47]. Normal cognition was defined as: 26–30, mild dementia: 21–25, moderate dementia 11–20, severe dementia < 11 [48].
 FASTa 1–7 Staging cognitive function, normal to severe dementia [49]. Normal cognition was scored as 1–2, 3–4 mild dementia, 5: moderate dementia, and 6–7 severe dementia.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms
 NPI-NHa 0–144 12 individual items: delusions, hallucination, agitation, depression, anxiety, euphoria, apathy, disinhibition, irritability, aberrant motor behaviour, night-time behaviour, and eating disturbances. Each item is scored by frequency (“absent” to “daily”; 0–4), and intensity for the patient (“mild” to “severe”; 1–3) these scores are multiplied to a sum score of 0–12 for each item and summed to give a total score [33, 50].
 CMAIa 29–203 29 items with agitated behaviors (scored by frequency: “never” to “multiple times an hour”; 1–7) [51]. Agitation was defined as ≥39.
 CSDDa 0–38 19 items on depressive behaviour (“absent” to “severe”; 0–2) [32]. Depression was defined as ≥8.
Pain
 MOBID-2a 0–10 Pain intensity during five standardized, guided movements, and five domains related to internal organs, head and skin during the last week, each item is scored 0 to 10 (“no pain” to “worst imaginable pain”). A total pain score is based on the worst pain experienced. A score of ≥3 signifies a need for pain treatment [52, 53]
Activities of daily living
 PSMSa 0–30 6 items of toileting, feeding, dressing, grooming, physical ambulation, and showering are scored whether the patient are able to do the activity or unable (0–5), higher scores indicate more dependency [54].
Quality of life
 QUALIDa 11–55 11 items on patient behaviour rated on severeness; 1 to 5. Lower score indicates higher quality of life [55].
  1. aProxy-rated instrument. CMAI Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, CSDD Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, FAST Functional Assessment Staging, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, MOBID 2 Mobilization-Observation-Behaviour-Intensity-Dementia 2 Pain Scale, NPI-NH Neuropsychiatric Inventory- nursing home version, QUALID quality of life in late-stage dementia