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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population and their sarcopenia status

From: Prevalence of and factors associated with sarcopenia among multi-ethnic ambulatory older Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting

Characteristicsb Total N = 387 No Sarcopenia n = 163 Pre-sarcopenia n = 118 Sarcopenia n = 91 Severe sarcopenia n = 15
Age, years(mean/SD) 68.3(5.7) 66.5(4.4) 68.0(5.0) 70.4(6.2) 78.3(5.3)
 60–69 245 (63.3) 129 (79.1) 73 (61.9) 42 (46.2) 1 (6.7)
 70 and above 142 (36.7) 34 (20.9) 45 (38.1) 49 (53.8) 14 (93.3)
Gender
 Female 181 (46.8) 57 (35.0) 63 (53.4) 50 (54.9) 11 (73.3)
 Male 206 (53.2) 106 (65.0) 55 (46.6) 41 (45.1) 4 (26.7)
Ethnicity
 Chinese 266 (68.7) 91 (55.8) 91 (77.1) 70 (76.9) 14 (93.3)
 Malay 64 (16.5) 36 (22.1) 17 (14.4) 11 (12.1) 0 (0.0)
 Indian 31 (8.0) 18 (11.0) 6 (5.1) 6 (6.6) 1 (3.2)
 Others 26 (6.7) 18 (11.0) 4 (3.4) 4 (4.4) 0 (0.0)
Marital status
 Married 318 (82.2) 141 (86.5) 96 (81.4) 72 (79.1) 9 (60.0)
 Single 15 (3.9) 6 (3.7) 5 (4.2) 4 (4.4) 0 (0.0)
 Divorced/Separated 15 (3.9) 8 (4.9) 4 (3.4) 3 (3.3) 0 (0.0)
 Widowed 39 (10.1) 8 (4.9) 13 (11.0) 12 (13.2) 6 (40.0)
Highest Qualification
 Up to primary education 92 (23.8) 29 (17.8) 31 (26.3) 22 (24.2) 10 (66.7)
 Secondary education and beyond 295 (76.2) 134 (82.2) 87 (73.7) 69 (75.8) 5 (33.3)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension/ High blood pressure
  Yes 339 (87.6) 147 (90.2) 97 (82.2) 82 (90.1) 13 (86.7)
  No 48 (12.4) 16 (9.8) 21 (17.8) 9 (9.9) 2 (13.3)
 Hyperlipidemia/ High Cholesterol
  Yes 373 (96.4) 159 (97.5) 114 (96.6) 85 (93.4) 15 (100)
  No 14 (3.6) 4 (2.5) 4 (3.4) 6 (6.6) 0 (0)
 Ischemic Heart Disease
  Yes 74 (19.1) 32 (19.6) 15 (12.7) 20 (22) 7 (46.7)
  No 313 (80.9) 131 (80.4) 103 (87.3) 71 (78) 8 (53.3)
 Chronic kidney disease
  Yes 67 (17.3) 28 (17.2) 14 (11.9) 18 (19.8) 7 (46.7)
  No 320 (82.7) 135 (82.8) 104 (88.1) 73 (80.2) 8 (53.3)
 Anaemia
  Yes 31 (8) 10 (6.1) 6 (5.1) 10 (11) 5 (33.3)
  No 356 (92) 153 (93.9) 112 (94.9) 81 (89) 10 (66.7)
a Others
  Yes 240 (62.0) 100 (41.7) 63 (26.3) 64 (26.7) 13 (5.4)
  No 147 (38.0) 63 (42.9) 55 (37.4) 27 (18.4) 2 (1.4)
Total number of medical conditions 4 (3–5) 4 (3–5) 4 (3–5) 4 (4–5) 6 (5–8)
Total number of long term medications 6 (4–8) 6 (5–8) 5.5 (4–7) 6 (5–8) 7 (6–8)
Type of dwelling
 Public housing (Rental flat/1-3room) 54 (14.0) 19 (11.7) 16 (13.6) 17 (18.7) 2 (13.3)
 Public housing (4–5 room) 287 (74.2) 129 (79.1) 84 (71.2) 65 (71.4) 9 (60.0)
 Condominium/Private property 46 (11.9) 15 (9.2) 18 (15.3) 9 (9.9) 4 (26.7)
Living
 Alone 16 (4.1) 5 (3.1) 6 (5.1) 4 (4.4) 1 (6.7)
 With family 367 (96.8) 156 (95.7) 111 (94.1) 87 (95.6) 13 (86.7)
 With assistance from domestic helper 4 (1.0) 2 (1.2) 1 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 1 (6.7)
Medical subsidy
 Public assistance 106 (27.4) 49 (30.1) 29 (24.6) 24 (26.4) 4 (26.7)
 Waiver of medical fee 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  1. aOthers include Asthma, Cateract, Osteoarthritis, Gout etc
  2. bContinuous variables reported as mean ± SD; Categorical variables reported as frequency (%)