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Table 1 Characteristics of the population by nighttime sleep, daytime napping and total sleep

From: Association between nighttime-daytime sleep patterns and chronic diseases in Chinese elderly population: a community-based cross-sectional study

  Nighttime sleep P-value Daytime napping P-value Total sleep P-value
≤ 6.5 h >  6.5 h Non-nappers ≤ 45 min >  45 min ≤ 7.0 h >  7.0 h
No. subjects (%) 2252 (47.5) 2488 (52.5)   2112 (43.4) 1752 (36.0) 1004 (20.6)   2642 (55.7) 2098 (44.3)  
Age (years) 74.30 (6.90) 73.65 (7.18) 0.002 73.41 (7.03) 74.42 (7.10) 74.24 (6.98) < 0.001 74.07 (6.88) 73.81 (7.27) 0.215
Female (%) 1306 (60.2) 1238 (51.4) < 0.001 1169 (57.8) 924 (55.0) 516 (52.3) 0.014 1519 (59.7) 1025 (50.5) < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 24.15 (4.29) 26.30 (61.86) 0.119 27.79 (86.89) 24.26 (4.46) 24.35 (4.64) 0.135 24.24 (4.75) 26.61 (67.59) 0.087
Physical activity (Met·h/week) 38.99 (131.08) 37.72 (159.27) 0.801 41.52 (198.05) 38.90 (110.72) 29.74 (36.14) 0.215 39.30 (148.82) 37.12 (143.81) 0.666
Number of family members 2.58 (1.35) 2.55 (1.19) 0.391 2.60 (1.32) 2.54 (1.22) 2.57 (1.26) 0.315 2.59 (1.33) 2.55 (1.18) 0.277
Family income (yuan, RMB) 6965.84 (12,668.88) 7253.11 (9542.72) 0.424 6889.40 (7815.00) 7011.88 (7484.94) 7733.63 (19,094.86) 0.188 6891.92 (11,754.57) 7393.42 (10,298.42) 0.164
Smoking status (%)    < 0.001     0.375    < 0.001
 Non-smoker 1808 (85.4) 1868 (80.1)   1578 (81.8) 1405 (84.0) 750 (82.1)   2109 (85.0) 1567 (79.6)  
 Ex-smoker 172 (8.1) 263 (11.3)   205 (10.6) 147 (8.8) 87 (9.5)   218 (8.8) 217 (11.0)  
 Current smoker 135 (6.4) 201 (8.6)   146 (7.6) 120 (7.2) 76 (8.3)   152 (6.1) 184 (9.3)  
Alcohol consumption (%)    0.525     0.444    0.388
 None or < once/month 1960 (89.1) 2156 (88.2)   1778 (88.2) 1508 (88.0) 887 (90.1)   2304 (89.2) 1812 (87.9)  
 Past alcohol drinker (>once/month) 201 (9.1) 247 (10.1)   204 (10.1) 168 (9.8) 84 (8.5)   239 (9.2) 209 (10.1)  
 Current alcohol drinker (>once/month) 39 (1.8) 41 (1.7)   33 (1.6) 36 (2.1) 14 (1.4)   41 (1.6) 39 (1.9)  
Any of chronic diseases (%) 1685 (85.9) 1772 (82.0) 0.001 1501 (83.0) 1279 (82.3) 740 (88.2) < 0.001 1938 (84.9) 1519 (82.6) 0.051
Diabetes (%) 363 (17.8) 451 (19.9) 0.085 366 (19.5) 298 (18.9) 164 (17.9) 0.597 435 (18.2) 379 (19.8) 0.194
CVD (%) 1277 (56.7) 1348 (54.2) 0.086 1106 (52.4) 982 (56.1) 582 (58.0) 0.006 1447 (54.8) 1178 (56.1) 0.358
Dyslipidemia (%) 634 (28.2) 638 (25.6) 0.056 542 (25.7) 484 (27.6) 273 (27.2) 0.359 724 (27.4) 548 (26.1) 0.338
Cancer (%) 93 (4.7) 82 (3.8) 0.145 78 (4.3) 57 (3.7) 44 (5.0) 0.329 102 (4.4) 73 (4.0) 0.518
Arthritis (%) 389 (17.3) 307 (12.3) < 0.001 266 (12.6) 283 (16.2) 160 (15.9) 0.003 424 (16.0) 272 (13.0) 0.003
  1. Unless indicated otherwise, data are given as the mean ± SD or as number and percentages
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, PAL physical activity level