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Table 5 Risk of bias (Cochrane, Acrobat-NRSI)

From: Trained volunteers to support chronically ill, multimorbid elderly between hospital and domesticity – a systematic review of one-on-one-intervention types, effects, and underlying training concepts

  Random sequence generation (selection bias) Allocation concealment (selection bias) Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias) Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias) Incomplete outcome data addressed (attrition bias) Selective reporting (reporting bias) Other sources of bias
Psychosocial–coordinative support
 White et al. 2012 [111] + ? +
 Philippi et al. 2015 [108, 109, 112, 130]   -1 -2 + + 3
Physical–cognitive activation
 Haider et al. 2017 [113,114,115,116, 127] + + -s -s +s +
   +o +o +o   
 Etkin et al. 2006 [117]       ? ?
 Stolee et al. 2012 [119]       ? ?
 Connelly 2008 [118]       ? ?
Assistance with medication intake
 Wang et al. 2013 [120] ? ? -s ?s ? ? ?
 Sales 2013 [121] ? ? -s +s ? ? ?
   +o +o    
  1. +: low risk of bias;?: unclear risk of bias; −: high risk of bias
  2. 1Special type of Selection Bias for non-randomized Studies following Acrobat-NRSI; 2 Attrition Bias for non-randomized Studies following Acrobat-NRSI; 3 Bias in measurement of interventions (Acrobat NRSI); o: objective Outcome; s: subjective Outcome