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Table 1 Study characteristics and populations

From: Trained volunteers to support chronically ill, multimorbid elderly between hospital and domesticity – a systematic review of one-on-one-intervention types, effects, and underlying training concepts

Study Design Country Setting Sample Inclusion criteria (Age + Primary indication) Female gender Mean age (standard deviation) Living alone
Psychosocial–coordinative support
 White et al. 2012 [111] RCT Australia At home after hospital 649 18–80, Colorectal cancer 40.5% 64.9 (−)
 Philippi et al. 2015 [108, 109, 112, 130] CCT Germany At home after hospital 244 65+, need for social support (self-developed screening with cut-off value) 69.3% 76.3 (6.3) 70.1%
Physical–cognitive activation
 Haider et al. 2017 [113,114,115,116, 127] RCT Austria At home after hospital 80 65+, Prefrail, frail, malnourished 83.8% 82.8(8.0) 75.0%
 Etkin et al. 2006 [117] PP USA At home 105 60+, Frail, homebound 86% 78.2(−)
 Stolee et al. 2012 [119] PP Canada At home 33 55+, Prefrail, frail 68.0% 80.0(8.8)
 Connelly 2008 [118] PP Canada At home 314 55+, Prefrail, frail, isolated 79.9(8.6) 55.7%
Assistance with medication intake
 Wang et al. 2013 [120] RCT Taiwan At home after hospital 62 65+, At least two chronic diseases 54.8% 71.3(7.8) 35.5%
 Sales 2013 [121] RCT USA At home after hospital 137 18+, Congestive heart failure 57.7% 72.6(64.1)
  1. CCT clinical controlled trial, RCT randomized controlled trial, PP studies with a single-group pre–post design