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Table 1 Sample characteristics at baseline

From: Prevalence and persistent use of psychotropic drugs in older adults receiving domiciliary care at baseline

  Total (N = 1001) Dementia (N = 415) No dementia (N = 586) p-value
Socio-demographics
Age Mean (SD) 83.4 (5.7) 84.5 (5.6) 82.6 (5.6) < 0.001 a
Females N (%) 683 (68.2) 273 (65.8) 410 (70.0) 0.171b
Married N (%) 297 (29.7) 131 (31.6) 166 (28.4) 0.250b
Health condition
 GMHRd
  Good N (%) 155 (15.5) 43 (10.4) 112 (19.1) < 0.001 b
  Fairly Good N (%) 392 (39.2) 147 (35.5) 245 (41.9)  
  Poor N (%) 346 (34.6) 166 (40.1) 180 (30.8)  
  Very Poor N (%) 106 (10.6) 58 (14.0) 48 (8.2)  
PSMSe Mean (SD) 9.2 (3.5) 10.9 (4.0) 7.9 (2.6) < 0.001 a
NPI Agitation sub-syndromef Mean (SD) 1.6 (4.4) 2.6 (5.7) 0.9 (2.9) < 0.001 a,c
NPI Psychosis sub-syndromeg Mean (SD) 0.5 (2.0) 1.1 (2.8) 0.2 (1.1) < 0.001 a,c
NPI Affective sub-syndromeh Mean (SD) 2.9 (5.3) 4.8 (6.8) 1.6 (3.3) < 0.001 a
No of drugs Mean (SD) 5.3 (2.9) 5.4 (3.0) 5.3 (2.9) 0.699a
Type of domiciliary carei
 Nursing care N (%) 670 (67.4) 347 (84.0) 323 (55.6) < 0.001 b
 Domestic help N (%) 528 (53.1) 210 (50.8) 318 (54.7) 0.229
 Other types of support N (%) 599 (59.8) 272 (65.5) 327 (55.8) 0.001 b
  1. Agitation sub-syndrome: Agitation/aggression, euphoria, disinhibition, irritability/lability, aberrant motor behavior.
  2. Psychosis sub-syndrome: Delusions, hallucinations
  3. Affective sub-syndrome: Depression/dysphoria, anxiety, apathy/indifference
  4. GMHR General Medical Health Rating, PSMS Physical Self-Maintenance Scale, NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory
  5. aLinear mixed model
  6. bGeneralized linear mixed model
  7. cNo cluster effect on municipality level
  8. dMissing information in 2 participants
  9. eMissing information in 5 participants
  10. fMissing information in 35 participants
  11. gMissing information in 26 participants
  12. hMissing information in 29 participants
  13. iMissing information in 7 participants